Anaphylactic shock is a severe allergic reaction involving multiple organs including the bronchial and cardiovascular system. Most anaphylactic mediators, like platelet-activating factor (PAF), histamine, and others, act through G protein – coupled receptors, which are linked to the heterotrimeric G proteins Gq /G 11 , G12/G13 , and Gi . The role of downstream signaling pathways activated by anaphylactic mediators in defi ned organs during anaphylactic reactions is largely unknown. Using genetic mouse models that allow for the conditional abrogation of G q /G 11 - and G 12 /G 13 -mediated signaling pathways by inducible Cre/loxP-mediated mutagenesis in endothelial cells (ECs), we show that Gq /G11 -mediated signaling in ECs is required for the opening of the endothelial barrier and the stimulation of nitric oxide formation by various infl ammatory mediators as well as by local anaphylaxis. The systemic effects of anaphylactic mediators like histamine and PAF, but not of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), are blunted in mice with endothelial G alpha q/G alpha 11 deficiency. Mice with endothelium-specific G alpha q /G alpha 11 deficiency, but not with G alpha 12/G alpha 13 deficiency, are protected against the fatal consequences of passive and active systemic anaphylaxis. This identifies endothelial Gq/G11 -mediated signaling as a critical mediator of fatal systemic anaphylaxis and, hence, as a potential new target to prevent or treat anaphylactic reactions.