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Fri, 07 Apr 2006 11:41:00 +0200Fri, 07 Apr 2006 11:41:00 +0200Dissolution of nucleons in giant nuclei
http://publikationen.stub.uni-frankfurt.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/2576
We discuss the possibility that nuclei with very large baryon numbers can exist in the form of large quark blobs in their ground states. A calculation based on the picture of quark bags shows that, in principle, the appearance of such exotic nuclear states in present laboratory experiments cannot be excluded. Some speculations in connection with the recently observed anomalous positron production in heavy-ion experiments are presented.David Vasak; Walter Greiner; Ludwig Neisearticlehttp://publikationen.stub.uni-frankfurt.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/2576Tue, 04 Jul 2006 11:41:00 +0200Relativistic transport theory of N, Delta and N* (1440) interacting through sigma, omega and pi mesons.
http://publikationen.stub.uni-frankfurt.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/3048
A self-consistent relativistic integral-di erential equation of the Boltzmann- Uehling-Uhlenbeck-type for the N*(1440) resonance is developed based on an effective Lagrangian of baryons interacting through mesons. The closed time-path Green s function technique and semi-classical, quasi-particle and Born approxima- tions are employed in the derivation. The non-equilibrium RBUU-type equation for the N*(1440) is consistent with that of nucleon s and delta s which we derived before. Thus, we obtain a set of coupled equations for the N,Delta and N*(1440) distribution functions. All the N (1440)-relevant in-medium two-body scattering cross sections within the N,Delta and N*(1440) system are derived from the same effective Lagrangian in addition to the mean field and presented analytically, which can be directly used in the study of relativistic heavy-ion collisions. The theoreticalprediction of the free pp - pp* (1440) cross section is in good agreement with the experimental data. We calculate the in-medium N+N - N+N* , N* +N - N+N and N*+N - N* +N cross sections in cold nuclear matter up to twice the nuclear matter density. The influence of different choices of the N* N* coupling strengths, which can not be obtained through fitting certain experimental data, are discussed. The results show that the density dependence of predicted in-medium cross sections are sensitive to the N* N* coupling strengths used. An evident density dependence will appear when a large scalar coupling strength of g^(sigma) N*N* is assumed. PACS number(s): 24.10.Cn; 25.70.-z; 21.65.+fGuangjun Mao; Ludwig Neise; Horst Stöcker; Walter Greiner; Zhuxia Lipreprinthttp://publikationen.stub.uni-frankfurt.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/3048Wed, 21 Dec 2005 11:00:59 +0100Fluctuations and inhomogenities of energy density and isospin in Pb + Pb at the SPS
http://publikationen.stub.uni-frankfurt.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/3070
The main goal of heavy ion physics in the last fifteen years has been the search for the quark-gluon-plasma(QGP). Until now, unambigous experimental evidence for the QGP is missing.Marcus Bleicher; Lars Gerland; Christian Spieles; Adrian Dumitru; Steffen A. Bass; Mohamed Belkacem; Mathias Brandstetter; Christoph Ernst; Ludwig Neise; Sven Soff; Henning Weber; Horst Stöcker; Walter Greinerarticlehttp://publikationen.stub.uni-frankfurt.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/3070Thu, 15 Dec 2005 13:51:45 +0100Direct photons in Pb+Pb at CERN-SPS from microscopic transport theory
http://publikationen.stub.uni-frankfurt.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/3075
Direct photon production in central Pb+Pb collisions at CERN-SPS energy is calculated within the relativistic microscopic transport model UrQMD, and within distinctly di erent versions of relativistic hydrodynamics. We find that in UrQMD the local momentum distributions of the secondaries are strongly elongated along the beam axis initially. Therefore, the preequilibrium contribution dominates the photon spectrum at transverse momenta above H 1.5 GeV. The hydrodynamics prediction of a strong correlation between the temperature and radial expansion velocities on the one hand and the slope of the transverse momentum distribution of direct photons on the other hand thus is not recovered in UrQMD. The rapidity distribution of direct photons in UrQMD reveals that the initial conditions for the longitudinal expansion of the photon source (the meson fluid ) resemble rather boostinvariance than Landau-like flow.Adrian Dumitru; Marcus Bleicher; Steffen A. Bass; Christian Spieles; Ludwig Neise; Horst Stöcker; Walter Greinerpreprinthttp://publikationen.stub.uni-frankfurt.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/3075Thu, 15 Dec 2005 11:52:03 +0100Relativistic transport theory for N, Delta and N*(1440) system
http://publikationen.stub.uni-frankfurt.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/3074
A self-consistent relativistic Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck equation for the N (1440) resonance is developed based on an effective Lagrangian of baryons interacting through mesons. The equation is consistent with that of nucleon s and delta s which we derived before. Thus, we obtain a set of coupled equations for the N, Delta and N (1440) distribution functions. All the N (1440)-relevant in-medium two-body scattering cross sections within the N, Delta and N (1440) system are derived from the same effective Lagrangian in addition to the mean field and presented analytically. Medium effects on the cross sections are discussed.Guangjun Mao; Ludwig Neise; Horst Stöcker; Walter Greinerpreprinthttp://publikationen.stub.uni-frankfurt.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/3074Thu, 15 Dec 2005 11:47:10 +0100Self-consistent relativistic quantum transport theory of hadronic matter : the coupled nucleon, delta and pion system
http://publikationen.stub.uni-frankfurt.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/3077
We derive the self-consistent relativistic quantum transport equation for the pion distribution function based on an effective Lagrangian of the QHD-II model. The closed time-path Green's function technique, the semi-classical, quasi-particle and Born approximation are employed in the derivation. Both the mean field and collision term are derived from the same Lagrangian and presented analytically. The dynamical equation for the pions is consistent with that for the nucleons and deltas which we developed before. Thus, we obtain a self-consistent relativistic transport model which describes the hadronic matter with N, Delta and pi degrees of freedom simultaneously. Within this approach, we investigate the medium effects on the pion dispersion relation as well as the pion absorption and pion production channels in cold nuclear matter. In contrast to the results of the non-relativistic model, the pion dispersion relation becomes harder at low momenta and softer at high momenta as compared to the free one. The theoretically predicted free pi N to Delta cross section is in agreement with the experimental data. Medium effects on the pi N to Delta cross section and momentum-dependent Delta-decay width are shown to be substantial.Guangjun Mao; Ludwig Neise; Horst Stöcker; Walter Greinerpreprinthttp://publikationen.stub.uni-frankfurt.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/3077Wed, 14 Dec 2005 13:46:36 +0100Relativistic quantum transport theory of hadronic matter: the coupled nucleon, delta and pion system
http://publikationen.stub.uni-frankfurt.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/3079
We derive the relativistic quantum transport equation for the pion distribution function based on an effective Lagrangian of the QHD-II model. The closed time-path Green s function technique, the semi-classical, quasiparticle and Born approximation are employed in the derivation. Both the mean field and collision term are derived from the same Lagrangian and presented analytically. The dynamical equation for the pions is consistent with that for the nucleons and deltas which we developed before. Thus, we obtain a relativistic transport model which describes the hadronic matter with N,Delta and pi degrees of freedom simultaneously. Within this approach, we investigate the medium e ects on the pion dispersion relation as well as the pion absorption and pion production channels in cold nuclear matter. In contrast to the results of the non-relativistic model, the pion dispersion relation becomes harder at low momenta and softer at high momenta as compared to the free one, which is mainly caused by the relativistic kinetics. The theoretically predicted free pi*N -> Delta cross section is in agreement with the experimental data. Medium e ects on the pi*N -> Delta cross section and momentum-dependent Delta-decay width are shown to be substantial. PACS number(s): 24.10.Cn; 13.75.Cs; 21.65.+f; 25.70.-zGuangjun Mao; Ludwig Neise; Horst Stöcker; Walter Greinerpreprinthttp://publikationen.stub.uni-frankfurt.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/3079Wed, 14 Dec 2005 13:38:24 +0100Critical review of quark gluon plasma signatures
http://publikationen.stub.uni-frankfurt.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/3110
Noneequilibrium models (three-fluid hydrodynamics and UrQMD) use to discuss the uniqueness of often proposed experimental signatures for quark matter formation in relativistic heavy ion collisions. It is demonstrated that these two models - although they do treat the most interesting early phase of the collisions quite differently(thermalizing QGP vs. coherent color fields with virtual particles) - both yields a reasonable agreement with a large variety of the available heavy ion data.Stefan Scherer; Steffen A. Bass; Marcus Bleicher; Mohamed Belkacem; Larissa V. Bravina; Jörg Brachmann; Adrian Dumitru; Christoph Ernst; Lars Gerland; Markus Hofmann; Ludwig Neise; Manuel Reiter; Sven Soff; Christian Spieles; Henning Weber; Eugene E. Zabrodin; Detlef Zschiesche; Joachim A. Maruhn; Horst Stöcker; Walter Greinerarticlehttp://publikationen.stub.uni-frankfurt.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/3110Wed, 07 Dec 2005 10:33:38 +0100Relativistic quantum transport theory of hadronic matter : the coupled nucleon, Delta, and pion system
http://publikationen.stub.uni-frankfurt.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/3122
We derive the relativistic quantum transport equation for the pion distribution function based on an effective Lagrangian of the QHD-II model. The closed-time-path Green s function technique and the semiclassical, quasiparticle, and Born approximations are employed in the derivation. Both the mean field and collision term are derived from the same Lagrangian and presented analytically. The dynamical equation for the pions is consistent with that for the nucleons and Delta's which we developed before. Thus, we obtain a relativistic transport model which describes the hadronic matter with N,Delta, and pi degrees of freedom simultaneously. Within this approach, we investigate the medium effects on the pion dispersion relation as well as the pion absorption and pion production channels in cold nuclear matter. In contrast to the results of the nonrelativistic model, the pion dispersion relation becomes harder at low momenta and softer at high momenta as compared to the free one, which is mainly caused by the relativistic kinetics. The theoretically predicted free piN->Delta cross section is in agreement with the experimental data. Medium effects on the piN->Delta cross section and momentum-dependent Delta-decay width are shown to be substantial. PACS-numbers: 24.10.Jv, 13.75.Cs, 21.65.1f, 25.75.2qGuangjun Mao; Ludwig Neise; Horst Stöcker; Walter Greinerarticlehttp://publikationen.stub.uni-frankfurt.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/3122Tue, 06 Dec 2005 11:40:47 +0100Nonequilibrium dynamics of a hadronizing quark gluon plasma
http://publikationen.stub.uni-frankfurt.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/3132
We investigate the hadronic cooling of a quark droplet within a microscopic model. The color flux tube approach is used to describe the hadronization of the quark phase. The model reproduces experimental particle ratios equally well compared to a static thermal hadronic source. Furthermore, the dynamics of the decomposition of a quark-gluon plasma is investigated and time dependent particle ratios are found.Markus Hofmann; Judah M. Eisenberg; Stefan Scherer; Marcus Bleicher; Ludwig Neise; Horst Stöcker; Walter Greinerpreprinthttp://publikationen.stub.uni-frankfurt.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/3132Thu, 01 Dec 2005 10:24:26 +0100Statistical mechanics of semi-classical colored objects
http://publikationen.stub.uni-frankfurt.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/3155
A microscopic model of deconfined matter based on color interactions between semi-classical quarks is studied. A hadronization mechanism is imposed to examine the properties and the disassembly of a thermalized quark plasma and to investigate the possible existence of a phase transition from quark matter to hadron matter.M. Hofmann; Marcus Bleicher; Stefan Scherer; Ludwig Neise; Horst Stöcker; Walter Greinerpreprinthttp://publikationen.stub.uni-frankfurt.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/3155Thu, 24 Nov 2005 10:58:21 +0100Microscopic colored quark dynamics in the soft nonperturbative regime : description of hadron formation in relativistic S+Au collisions at CERN
http://publikationen.stub.uni-frankfurt.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/3255
The quark-molecular-dynamics model is used to study microscopically the dynamics of the coloured quark phase and the subsequent hadron formation in relativistic S+Au collisions at the CERN-SPS. Particle spectra and hadron ratios are compared to both data and the results of hadronic transport calculations. The non-equilibrium dynamics of hadronization and the loss of correlation among quarks are studied.Stefan Scherer; Markus Hofmann; Marcus Bleicher; Ludwig Neise; Horst Stöcker; Walter Greinerpreprinthttp://publikationen.stub.uni-frankfurt.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/3255Fri, 18 Nov 2005 12:50:11 +0100Physics opportunities at RHIC and LHC
http://publikationen.stub.uni-frankfurt.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/3367
Nonequilibrium models (three-fluid hydrodynamics, UrQMD, and quark molecular dynamics) are used to discuss the uniqueness of often proposed experimental signatures for quark matter formation in relativistic heavy ion collisions from the SPS via RHIC to LHC. It is demonstrated that these models - although they do treat the most interesting early phase of the collisions quite differently (thermalizing QGP vs. coherent color fields with virtual particles) -- all yield a reasonable agreement with a large variety of the available heavy ion data. Hadron/hyperon yields, including J/Psi meson production/suppression, strange matter formation, dileptons, and directed flow (bounce-off and squeeze-out) are investigated. Observations of interesting phenomena in dense matter are reported. However, we emphasize the need for systematic future measurements to search for simultaneous irregularities in the excitation functions of several observables in order to come close to pinning the properties of hot, dense QCD matter from data. The role of future experiments with the STAR and ALICE detectors is pointed out.Stefan Scherer; Steffen A. Bass; Mohamed Belkacem; Marcus Bleicher; Jörg Brachmann; Adrian Dumitru; Christoph Ernst; Lars Gerland; Nils Hammon; Markus Hofmann; Jens Konopka; Ludwig Neise; Manuel Reiter; Stefan Schramm; Sven Soff; Christian Spieles; Henning Weber; Detlef Zschiesche; Joachim A. Maruhn; Horst Stöcker; Walter Greinerpreprinthttp://publikationen.stub.uni-frankfurt.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/3367Tue, 01 Nov 2005 09:26:33 +0100Local equilibrium in heavy ion collisions. Microscopic model versus statistical model analysis
http://publikationen.stub.uni-frankfurt.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/4794
The assumption of local equilibrium in relativistic heavy ion collisions at energies from 10.7 AGeV (AGS) up to 160 AGeV (SPS) is checked in the microscopic transport model. Dynamical calculations performed for a central cell in the reaction are compared to the predictions of the thermal statistical model. We find that kinetic, thermal and chemical equilibration of the expanding hadronic matter are nearly approached late in central collisions at AGS energy for t >= 10 fm/c in a central cell. At these times the equation of state may be approximated by a simple dependence P ~= (0.12-0.15) epsilon. Increasing deviations of the yields and the energy spectra of hadrons from statistical model values are observed for increasing energy, 40 AGeV and 160 AGeV. These violations of local equilibrium indicate that a fully equilibrated state is not reached, not even in the central cell of heavy ion collisions at energies above 10 AGeV. The origin of these findings is traced to the multiparticle decays of strings and many-body decays of resonances.Larissa V. Bravina; Eugene E. Zabrodin; Mark I. Gorenstein; Steffen A. Bass; Mohamed Belkacem; Marcus Bleicher; Mathias Brandstetter; Christoph Ernst; Markus Hofmann; Ludwig Neise; Sven Soff; Henning Weber; Horst Stöcker; Walter Greinerpreprinthttp://publikationen.stub.uni-frankfurt.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/4794Thu, 14 Apr 2005 15:26:34 +0200Equation of state, spectra and composition of hot and dense infinite hadronic matter in a microscopic transport model
http://publikationen.stub.uni-frankfurt.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/4806
Equilibrium properties of infinite relativistic hadron matter are investigated using the Ultrarelativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics (UrQMD) model. The simulations are performed in a box with periodic boundary conditions. Equilibration times depend critically on energy and baryon densities. Energy spectra of various hadronic species are shown to be isotropic and consistent with a single temperature in equilibrium. The variation of energy density versus temperature shows a Hagedorn-like behavior with a limiting temperature of 130 +/- 10 MeV. Comparison of abundances of different particle species to ideal hadron gas model predictions show good agreement only if detailed balance is implemented for all channels. At low energy densities, high mass resonances are not relevant; however, their importance raises with increasing energy density. The relevance of these different conceptual frameworks for any interpretation of experimental data is questioned.Mohamed Belkacem; Mathias Brandstetter; Steffen A. Bass; Marcus Bleicher; Larissa V. Bravina; Mark I. Gorenstein; Jens Konopka; Ludwig Neise; Christian Spieles; Sven Soff; Henning Weber; Horst Stöcker; Walter Greinerpreprinthttp://publikationen.stub.uni-frankfurt.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/4806Wed, 13 Apr 2005 18:18:39 +0200Microscopic models for ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions
http://publikationen.stub.uni-frankfurt.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/4812
In this paper, the concepts of microscopic transport theory are introduced and the features and shortcomings of the most commonly used ansatzes are discussed. In particular, the Ultrarelativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics (UrQMD) transport model is described in great detail. Based on the same principles as QMD and RQMD, it incorporates a vastly extended collision term with full baryon-antibaryon symmetry, 55 baryon and 32 meson species. Isospin is explicitly treated for all hadrons. The range of applicability stretches from E lab < 100$ MeV/nucleon up to E lab> 200$ GeV/nucleon, allowing for a consistent calculation of excitation functions from the intermediate energy domain up to ultrarelativistic energies. The main physics topics under discussion are stopping, particle production and collective flow.Steffen A. Bass; Mohamed Belkacem; Marcus Bleicher; Mathias Brandstetter; Larissa V. Bravina; Christoph Ernst; Lars Gerland; M. Hofmann; S. Hofmann; Jens Konopka; Guangjun Mao; Ludwig Neise; Sven Soff; Christian Spieles; Henning Weber; L. A. Winckelmann; Horst Stöcker; Walter Greiner; Christoph Hartnack; Jörg Aichelin; N. Amelinpreprinthttp://publikationen.stub.uni-frankfurt.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/4812Wed, 13 Apr 2005 17:48:13 +0200Are we close to the QGP? - Hadrochemical vs. microscopic analysis of particle production in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions
http://publikationen.stub.uni-frankfurt.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/4811
Ratios of hadronic abundances are analyzed for pp and nucleus-nucleus collisions at sqrt(s)=20 GeV using the microscopic transport model UrQMD. Secondary interactions significantly change the primordial hadronic cocktail of the system. A comparison to data shows a strong dependence on rapidity. Without assuming thermal and chemical equilibrium, predicted hadron yields and ratios agree with many of the data, the few observed discrepancies are discussed.Steffen A. Bass; Mohamed Belkacem; Mathias Brandstetter; Marcus Bleicher; Lars Gerland; Jens Konopka; Ludwig Neise; Christian Spieles; Sven Soff; Henning Weber; Horst Stöcker; Walter Greinerpreprinthttp://publikationen.stub.uni-frankfurt.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/4811Wed, 13 Apr 2005 17:38:36 +0200