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#### Institute

- "Soft'' transverse expansion and flow in a multi-fluid model without phase transition (1997)
- Abstract: We study transverse expansion and directed flow in Au(11AGeV)Au reactions within a multi-fluid dynamical model. Although we do not employ an equation of state (EoS) with a first order phase transition, we find a slow increase of the transverse velocities of the nucleons with time. A similar behaviour can be observed for the directed nucleon flow. This is due to non-equilibrium e ects which also lead to less and slower conversion of longitudinal into transverse momentum. We also show that the proton rapidity distribution at CERN energies, as calculated within this model, agrees well with the preliminary NA44-data.

- A Fast Hybrid Approach to Air Shower Simulations and Applications (2003)
- The SENECA model, a new hybrid approach to air shower simulations, is presented. It combines the use of e cient cascade equations in the energy range where a shower can be treated as one-dimensional, with a traditional Monte Carlo method which traces individual particles. This allows one to reproduce natural fluctuations of individual showers as well as the lateral spread of low energy particles. The model is quite e cient in computation time. As an application of the new approach, the influence of the low energy hadronic models on shower properties for AUGER energies is studied. We conclude that these models have a significant impact on the tails of lateral distribution functions, and deserve therefore more attention.

- A micro-canonical description of hadron production in proton-proton collisions (2003)
- A micro-canonical treatment is used to study particle production in pp collisions. First this micro-canonical treatment is compared to some canonical ones. Then proton, antiproton and pion 4 pi multiplicities from proton-proton collisions at various center of mass energies are used to fix the micro-canonical parameters (E) and (V). The dependences of the micro-canonical parameters on the collision energy are parameterised for the further study of pp reactions with this micro-canonical treatment.

- A Microscopic calculation of secondary Drell-Yan production in heavy ion collisions (1997)
- A study of secondary Drell-Yan production in nuclear collisions is presented for SPS energies. In addition to the lepton pairs produced in the initial collisions of the projectile and target nucleons, we consider the potentially high dilepton yield from hard valence antiquarks in produced mesons and antibaryons. We calculate the secondary Drell-Yan contributions taking the collision spectrum of hadrons from the microscopic model URQMD. The con- tributions from meson-baryon interactions, small in hadron-nucleus interac- tions, are found to be substantial in nucleus-nucleus collisions at low dilepton masses. Preresonance collisions of partons may further increase the yields.

- An introduction to mini black holes at LHC (2007)
- Relying on the existing estimates for the production cross sections of mini black holes in models with large extra dimensions, we review strategies for identifying those objects at collider experiments. We further consider a possible stable final state of such black holes and discuss their characteristic signatures. Keywords: Black holes

- Analysis of reaction dynamics at RHIC in a combined parton/hadron transport approach (1999)
- We introduce a transport approach which combines partonic and hadronic degrees of freedom on an equal footing and discuss the resulting reaction dynamics. The initial parton dynamics is modeled in the framework of the parton cascade model, hadronization is performed via a cluster hadronization model and configuration space coalescence, and the hadronic phase is described by a microscopic hadronic transport approach. The resulting reaction dynamics indicates a strong influence of hadronic rescattering on the space-time pattern of hadronic freeze-out and on the shape of transverse mass spectra. Freeze-out times and transverse radii increase by factors of 2 3 depending on the hadron species.

- Anisotropic flow at RHIC : how unique is the number-of-constituent-quark scaling? (2006)
- The transverse momentum dependence of the anisotropic flow v_2 for pi, K, nucleon, Lambda, Xi and Omega is studied for Au+Au collisions at sqrt s_NN = 200 GeV within two independent string-hadron transport approaches (RQMD and UrQMD). Although both models reach only 60% of the absolute magnitude of the measured v_2, they both predict the particle type dependence of v_2, as observed by the RHIC experiments: v_2 exhibits a hadron-mass hierarchy (HMH) in the low p_T region and a number-of-constituent-quark (NCQ) dependence in the intermediate p_T region. The failure of the hadronic models to reproduce the absolute magnitude of the observed v_2 indicates that transport calculations of heavy ion collisions at RHIC must incorporate interactions among quarks and gluons in the early, hot and dense phase. The presence of an NCQ scaling in the string-hadron model results suggests that the particle-type dependencies observed in heavy-ion collisions at intermediate p_T are related to the hadronic cross sections in vacuum rather than to the hadronization process itself, as suggested by quark recombination models.

- Anisotropic flow in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions (2000)
- A sign reversal of the directed flow parameter v1 in the central rapidity region in Au+Au collisions at s = 200 AGeV is predicted. This anti-flow is shown to be linked to the expansion of the hot matter created. In line with this observation the predicted elliptic flow parameter v2 of various particle species is linked to the mean free path of these particles.

- Antibaryons in massive heavy ion reactions : importance of potentials (1995)
- In the framework of RQMD we investigate antiproton observables in massive heavy ion collisions at AGS energies and compare to preliminary results of the E878 collaboration. We focus here on the considerable influence of the real part of an antinucleon nucleus optical potential on the ¯p momentum spectra. Pacs-numbers: 14.20 Dh, 25.70.-z

- Are we close to the QGP? - Hadrochemical vs. microscopic analysis of particle production in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions (1997)
- Ratios of hadronic abundances are analyzed for pp and nucleus-nucleus collisions at sqrt(s)=20 GeV using the microscopic transport model UrQMD. Secondary interactions significantly change the primordial hadronic cocktail of the system. A comparison to data shows a strong dependence on rapidity. Without assuming thermal and chemical equilibrium, predicted hadron yields and ratios agree with many of the data, the few observed discrepancies are discussed.