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#### Institute

- GEANT4 : a simulation toolkit (2003)
- Abstract Geant4 is a toolkit for simulating the passage of particles through matter. It includes a complete range of functionality including tracking, geometry, physics models and hits. The physics processes offered cover a comprehensive range, including electromagnetic, hadronic and optical processes, a large set of long-lived particles, materials and elements, over a wide energy range starting, in some cases, from 250 eV and extending in others to the TeV energy range. It has been designed and constructed to expose the physics models utilised, to handle complex geometries, and to enable its easy adaptation for optimal use in different sets of applications. The toolkit is the result of a worldwide collaboration of physicists and software engineers. It has been created exploiting software engineering and object-oriented technology and implemented in the C++ programming language. It has been used in applications in particle physics, nuclear physics, accelerator design, space engineering and medical physics. PACS: 07.05.Tp; 13; 23

- Importance of momentum dependent interactions for the extraction of the nuclear equation of state from high-energy heavy ion collisions (1987)
- We demonstrate that momentum-dependent nuclear interactions (MDI) have a large effect on the dynamics and on the observables of high-energy heavy-ion collisions: A soft potential with MDI suppresses pion and kaon yields much more strongly than a local hard potential and results in transverse momenta intermediate between soft and hard local potentials. The collective-flow angles and the deuteron-to-proton ratios are rather insensitive to the MDI. Only simultaneous measurements of these observables can give clues on the nuclear equation of state at densities of interest for supernova collapse and neutron-star stability.

- Monte Carlo model for multiparticle production at ultrarelativistic energies (1994)
- The Monte Carlo parton string model for multiparticle production in hadron-hadron, hadron-nucleus, and nucleus-nucleus collisions at high energies is described. An adequate choice of the parameters in the model gives the possibility of recovering the main results of the dual parton model, with the advantage of treating both hadron and nuclear interactions on the same footing, reducing them to interactions between partons. Also the possibility of considering both soft and hard parton interactions is introduced.

- Freeze out in hydrodynamical models (1999)
- We study the effects of strict conservation laws and the problem of negative contributions to final momentum distribution during the freeze out through 3-dimensional hypersurfaces with space-like normal. We study some suggested solutions for this problem, and demonstrate it on one example. PACS: 24.10.Nz, 25.75.-q

- Non-ideal particle distributions from kinetic freeze out models (1998)
- In fluid dynamical models the freeze out of particles across a three dimensional space-time hypersurface is discussed. The calculation of final momentum distribution of emitted particles is described for freeze out surfaces, with both space-like and time-like normals, taking into account conservation laws across the freeze out discontinuity.

- Photonuclear effect in heavy deformed nuclei (1966)
- The theory of Raman scattering is extended to include electric-quadrupole radiation. The results obtained are used to compute the elastic and Raman scattering cross sections of heavy deformed nuclei. The dipole and quadrupole resonances are described by a previously developed theory which includes surface vibrations and rotations. The computed cross sections are compared with experimental data for all those nuclei where both absorption and scattering cross sections are available. Some discrepances still exist in certain details; however, the over-all agreement between theory and experiment is very good.

- Magnetic neutrino scattering by crystals (1990)
- The magnetic dipole scattering of neutrinos by the electrostatic potentials of single atoms as well as crystals is investigated. It is shown that scattering by a rigid cubic lattice can amplify the neutrino-atom cross section by a factor of N1/3, N being the number of scatterers. However, comparing the results with typical weak-interaction cross sections, the effect seems to be not observable in experiment.

- Quantum-mechanical treatment of high-energy channeling radiation (1995)
- An alternative theoretical description of axial electron channeling in the multi-GeV region has been developed. We solve a kinetic equation to evaluate an electron distribution function in axially oriented single crystals. Based on the single-string model, the required matrix elements for radiation and scattering by lattice vibrations are calculated employing solutions of the Dirac equation in cylindrical coordinates. Results obtained for 150-GeV electrons propagating along the 〈110〉 axis of germanium are in good agreement with experimental observations.

- Cold-fission yields at effective excitation energies (1995)
- The experimental cold-fission yields for the system 233U(nth, f) are analyzed as function of the effective total excitation energy (TXE). The nuclear level density effect is taken into account at higher TXE, in order to benefit by the lower experimental data uncertainty as well as to avoid the quantitative account of the level densities close to fragment ground states. In this way the odd-even staggering which appears in the yields extrapolated at zero excitation energy by using the level densities, vanishes. We conclude that the cold nuclear fragmentation theory including the dynamical model describes well the experimental data.

- Pion chemical equilibration in heavy ion collisions : relativistic quantum molecular dynamic analysis (1992)
- In the framework of relativistic quantum molecular dynamics the authors find that the pion system produced in central heavy-ion collisions at Elab/A approximately 1 GeV/nucl. is out of chemical equilibrium. Pion chemical potential is large and decreases during the expansion stage.