Is part of the Bibliography
Are V1 Simple Cells Optimized for Visual Occlusions? A Comparative Study
- Abstract: Simple cells in primary visual cortex were famously found to respond to low-level image components such as edges. Sparse coding and independent component analysis (ICA) emerged as the standard computational models for simple cell coding because they linked their receptive fields to the statistics of visual stimuli. However, a salient feature of image statistics, occlusions of image components, is not considered by these models. Here we ask if occlusions have an effect on the predicted shapes of simple cell receptive fields. We use a comparative approach to answer this question and investigate two models for simple cells: a standard linear model and an occlusive model. For both models we simultaneously estimate optimal receptive fields, sparsity and stimulus noise. The two models are identical except for their component superposition assumption. We find the image encoding and receptive fields predicted by the models to differ significantly. While both models predict many Gabor-like fields, the occlusive model predicts a much sparser encoding and high percentages of ‘globular’ receptive fields. This relatively new center-surround type of simple cell response is observed since reverse correlation is used in experimental studies. While high percentages of ‘globular’ fields can be obtained using specific choices of sparsity and overcompleteness in linear sparse coding, no or only low proportions are reported in the vast majority of studies on linear models (including all ICA models). Likewise, for the here investigated linear model and optimal sparsity, only low proportions of ‘globular’ fields are observed. In comparison, the occlusive model robustly infers high proportions and can match the experimentally observed high proportions of ‘globular’ fields well. Our computational study, therefore, suggests that ‘globular’ fields may be evidence for an optimal encoding of visual occlusions in primary visual cortex.
Author Summary: The statistics of our visual world is dominated by occlusions. Almost every image processed by our brain consists of mutually occluding objects, animals and plants. Our visual cortex is optimized through evolution and throughout our lifespan for such stimuli. Yet, the standard computational models of primary visual processing do not consider occlusions. In this study, we ask what effects visual occlusions may have on predicted response properties of simple cells which are the first cortical processing units for images. Our results suggest that recently observed differences between experiments and predictions of the standard simple cell models can be attributed to occlusions. The most significant consequence of occlusions is the prediction of many cells sensitive to center-surround stimuli. Experimentally, large quantities of such cells are observed since new techniques (reverse correlation) are used. Without occlusions, they are only obtained for specific settings and none of the seminal studies (sparse coding, ICA) predicted such fields. In contrast, the new type of response naturally emerges as soon as occlusions are considered. In comparison with recent in vivo experiments we find that occlusive models are consistent with the high percentages of center-surround simple cells observed in macaque monkeys, ferrets and mice.
BACL Is a Novel Brain-Associated, Non-NKC-Encoded Mammalian C-Type Lectin-Like Receptor of the CLEC2 Family
- Natural Killer Gene Complex (NKC)–encoded C-type lectin-like receptors (CTLRs) are expressed on various immune cells including T cells, NK cells and myeloid cells and thereby contribute to the orchestration of cellular immune responses. Some NKC-encoded CTLRs are grouped into the C-type lectin family 2 (CLEC2 family) and interact with genetically linked CTLRs of the NKRP1 family. While many CLEC2 family members are expressed by hematopoietic cells (e.g. CD69 (CLEC2C)), others such as the keratinocyte-associated KACL (CLEC2A) are specifically expressed by other tissues. Here we provide the first characterization of the orphan gene CLEC2L. In contrast to other CLEC2 family members, CLEC2L is conserved among mammals and located outside of the NKC. We show that CLEC2L-encoded CTLRs are expressed as non-glycosylated, disulfide-linked homodimers at the cell surface. CLEC2L expression is fairly tissue-restricted with a predominant expression in the brain. Thus CLEC2L-encoded CTLRs were designated BACL (brain-associated C-type lectin). Combining in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, we show that BACL is expressed by neurons in the CNS, with a pronounced expression by Purkinje cells. Notably, the CLEC2L locus is adjacent to another orphan CTLR gene (KLRG2), but reporter cell assays did neither indicate interaction of BACL with the KLRG2 ectodomain nor with human NK cell lines or lymphocytes. Along these lines, growth of BACL-expressing tumor cell lines in immunocompetent mice did not provide evidence for an immune-related function of BACL. Altogether, the CLEC2L gene encodes a homodimeric cell surface CTLR that stands out among CLEC2 family members by its conservation in mammals, its biochemical properties and the predominant expression in the brain. Future studies will have to reveal insights into the functional relevance of BACL in the context of its neuronal expression.
Postoperative Neurocognitive Dysfunction in Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery after Remote Ischemic Preconditioning: A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Pilot Study
- Background: Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) has been shown to enhance the tolerance of remote organs to cope with a subsequent ischemic event. We hypothesized that RIPC reduces postoperative neurocognitive dysfunction (POCD) in patients undergoing complex cardiac surgery.
Methods: We conducted a prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled trial including 180 adult patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Patients were randomized either to RIPC or to control group. Primary endpoint was postoperative neurocognitive dysfunction 5–7 days after surgery assessed by a comprehensive test battery. Cognitive change was assumed if the preoperative to postoperative difference in 2 or more tasks assessing different cognitive domains exceeded more than one SD (1 SD criterion) or if the combined Z score was 1.96 or greater (Z score criterion).
Results: According to 1 SD criterion, 52% of control and 46% of RIPC patients had cognitive deterioration 5–7 days after surgery (p = 0.753). The summarized Z score showed a trend to more cognitive decline in the control group (2.16±5.30) compared to the RIPC group (1.14±4.02; p = 0.228). Three months after surgery, incidence and severity of neurocognitive dysfunction did not differ between control and RIPC. RIPC tended to decrease postoperative troponin T release at both 12 hours [0.60 (0.19–1.94) µg/L vs. 0.48 (0.07–1.84) µg/L] and 24 hours after surgery [0.36 (0.14–1.89) µg/L vs. 0.26 (0.07–0.90) µg/L].
Conclusions: We failed to demonstrate efficacy of a RIPC protocol with respect to incidence and severity of POCD and secondary outcome variables in patients undergoing a wide range of cardiac surgery. Therefore, definitive large-scale multicenter trials are needed.
Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00877305
Robust Automated Detection of Microstructural White Matter Degeneration in Alzheimer’s Disease Using Machine Learning Classification of Multicenter DTI Data
Arun L. W. Bokde
Stefan J. Teipel
- Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) based assessment of white matter fiber tract integrity can support the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The use of DTI as a biomarker, however, depends on its applicability in a multicenter setting accounting for effects of different MRI scanners. We applied multivariate machine learning (ML) to a large multicenter sample from the recently created framework of the European DTI study on Dementia (EDSD). We hypothesized that ML approaches may amend effects of multicenter acquisition. We included a sample of 137 patients with clinically probable AD (MMSE 20.6±5.3) and 143 healthy elderly controls, scanned in nine different scanners. For diagnostic classification we used the DTI indices fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) and, for comparison, gray matter and white matter density maps from anatomical MRI. Data were classified using a Support Vector Machine (SVM) and a Naïve Bayes (NB) classifier. We used two cross-validation approaches, (i) test and training samples randomly drawn from the entire data set (pooled cross-validation) and (ii) data from each scanner as test set, and the data from the remaining scanners as training set (scanner-specific cross-validation). In the pooled cross-validation, SVM achieved an accuracy of 80% for FA and 83% for MD. Accuracies for NB were significantly lower, ranging between 68% and 75%. Removing variance components arising from scanners using principal component analysis did not significantly change the classification results for both classifiers. For the scanner-specific cross-validation, the classification accuracy was reduced for both SVM and NB. After mean correction, classification accuracy reached a level comparable to the results obtained from the pooled cross-validation. Our findings support the notion that machine learning classification allows robust classification of DTI data sets arising from multiple scanners, even if a new data set comes from a scanner that was not part of the training sample.
Nonthermal phase transitions in semiconductors induced by a femtosecond extreme ultraviolet laser pulse
Harald O. Jeschke
- Part of Focus on High Energy Density Physics. In this paper, we present a novel theoretical approach, which allows the study of nonequilibrium dynamics of both electrons and atoms/ions within free-electron laser excited semiconductors at femtosecond time scales. The approach consists of the Monte-Carlo method treating photoabsorption, high-energy-electron and core-hole kinetics and relaxation processes. Low-energy electrons localized within the valence and conduction bands of the target are treated with a temperature equation, including source terms, defined by the exchange of energy and particles with high-energy electrons and atoms. We follow the atomic motion with the molecular dynamics method on the changing potential energy surface. The changes of the potential energy surface and of the electron band structure are calculated at each time step with the help of the tight-binding method. Such a combination of methods enables investigation of nonequilibrium structural changes within materials under extreme ultraviolet (XUV) femtosecond irradiation. Our analysis performed for diamond irradiated with an XUV femtosecond laser pulse predicts for the first time in this wavelength regime the nonthermal phase transition from diamond to graphite. Similar to the case of visible light irradiation, this transition takes place within a few tens of femtoseconds and is caused by changes of the interatomic potential induced by ultrafast electronic excitations. It thus occurs well before the heating stimulated by electron–phonon coupling starts to play a role. This allows us to conclude that this transition is nonthermal and represents a general mechanism of the response of solids to ultrafast electron excitations.
CAST constraints on the axion-electron coupling
José Manuel Carmona
Juan I. Collar
Luigi Di Lella
J. A. García
Michael D. Hasinoff
Fritz Herbert Heinsius
Dieter H.H. Hoffmann
Igor Garcia Irastorza
David W. Miller
Mike J. Pivovaroff
Karl van Bibber
Joaquin D. Vieira
José A. Villar
Julia K. Vogel
- In non-hadronic axion models, which have a tree-level axion-electron interaction, the Sun produces a strong axion flux by bremsstrahlung, Compton scattering, and axiorecombination, the “BCA processes.” Based on a new calculation of this flux, including for the first time axio-recombination, we derive limits on the axion-electron Yukawa coupling gae and axion-photon interaction strength ga using the CAST phase-I data (vacuum phase). For ma <~ 10 meV/c2 we find ga gae < 8.1 × 10−23 GeV−1 at 95% CL. We stress that a next-generation axion helioscope such as the proposed IAXO could push this sensitivity into a range beyond stellar energy-loss limits and test the hypothesis that white-dwarf cooling is dominated by axion emission.
Humaira Masood Siddiqi
- The aromatic rings in the title compound, C13H8ClNO4, enclose a dihedral angle of 39.53 (3)°. The nitro group is almost coplanar with the ring to which it is attached [dihedral angle = 4.31 (1)°]. In the crystal, molecules are connected by C-H...O hydrogen bonds into chains running along . Key indicators: single-crystal X-ray study; T = 173 K; mean σ(C–C) = 0.002 A°; R factor = 0.044; wR factor = 0.105; data-to-parameter ratio = 18.9.
Electron Supersurface Scattering On Polycrystalline Au
Wolfgang S. M. Werner
- Supersurface electron scattering, i.e., electron energy losses and associated deflections in vacuum above the surface of a medium, is shown to contribute significantly to electron spectra. We have obtained experimental verification (in absolute units) of theoretical predictions that the angular distribution of the supersurface backscattering probability exhibits strong oscillations which are anticorrelated with the generalized Ramsauer-Townsend minima in the backscattering probability. We have investigated 500-eV electron backscattering from an Au surface for an incidence angle of 70° and scattering angles between 37° and 165°. After removing the contribution of supersurface scattering from the experimental data, the resulting angular and energy distribution agrees with the Landau-Goudsmit-Saunderson (LGS) theory, which was proposed about 60 years ago, while the raw data are anticorrelated with LGS theory. This result implies that supersurface scattering is an essential phenomenon for quantitative understanding of electron spectra.
Spin modulation instabilities and phase separation dynamics in trapped two-component Bose condensates
Nicolaas Jan van Druten
- n the study of trapped two-component Bose gases, a widely used dynamical protocol is to start from the ground state of a one-component condensate and then switch half the atoms into another hyperfine state. The slightly different intra-component and inter-component interactions can then lead to highly non-trivial dynamics, especially in the density mismatch between the two components, commonly referred to as 'spin' density. We study and classify the possible subsequent dynamics, over a wide variety of parameters spanned by the trap strength and by the inter- to intra-component interaction ratio. A stability analysis suited to the trapped situation provides us with a framework to explain the various types of dynamics in different regimes.
Multiple encoding in genetic editions: the case of "Faust"
- The aim of the present paper is to show how, and to what extent, the standards of critical genetic editions as applied to Goethe's Faust can be attained within a TEI framework. It proposes and argues for the introduction of two separate transcripts: documentary and textual. Despite the apparent disadvantages of multiple encoding, this approach recommends itself for practical reasons (e.g., avoidance of overlapping hierarchies), and it conveniently reflects the idea that any written document must be considered a material object on the one hand and a medium of textual transmission on the other. In the course of the paper, some aspects and problems of chapter 11 of version 2.0.0 of TEI P5 (the definition and use of the elements <line> and <mod> and related issues) will be discussed.