Is part of the Bibliography
CD69 Is a TGF-β/1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 Target Gene in Monocytes
Thea K. Wöbke
Andreas von Knethen
Bernd L. Sorg
- CD69 is a transmembrane lectin that can be expressed on most hematopoietic cells. In monocytes, it has been functionally linked to the 5-lipoxygenase pathway in which the leukotrienes, a class of highly potent inflammatory mediators, are produced. However, regarding CD69 gene expression and its regulatory mechanisms in monocytes, only scarce data are available. Here, we report that CD69 mRNA expression, analogous to that of 5-lipoxygenase, is induced by the physiologic stimuli transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1α,25(OH)2D3) in monocytic cells. Comparison with T- and B-cell lines showed that the effect was specific for monocytes. CD69 expression levels were increased in a concentration-dependent manner, and kinetic analysis revealed a rapid onset of mRNA expression, indicating that CD69 is a primary TGF-β/1α,25(OH)2D3 target gene. PCR analysis of different regions of the CD69 mRNA revealed that de novo transcription was initiated and proximal and distal parts were induced concomitantly. In common with 5-lipoxygenase, no activation of 0.7 kb or ~2.3 kb promoter fragments by TGF-β and 1α,25(OH)2D3 could be observed in transient reporter assays for CD69. Analysis of mRNA stability using a transcription inhibitor and a 3′UTR reporter construct showed that TGF-β and 1α,25(OH)2D3 do not influence CD69 mRNA stability. Functional knockdown of Smad3 clearly demonstrated that upregulation of CD69 mRNA, in contrast to 5-LO, depends on Smad3. Comparative studies with different inhibitors for mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) revealed that MAPK signalling is involved in CD69 gene regulation, whereas 5-lipoxygenase gene expression was only partly affected. Mechanistically, we found evidence that CD69 gene upregulation depends on TAK1-mediated p38 activation. In summary, our data indicate that CD69 gene expression, conforming with 5-lipoxygenase, is regulated monocyte-specifically by the physiologic stimuli TGF-β and 1α,25(OH)2D3 on mRNA level, although different mechanisms account for the upregulation of each gene.
Restriction of trophic factors and nutrients induces PARKIN expression
Jorge Antolio Dominguez Bautista
- Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most frequent neurodegenerative movement disorder and manifests at old age. While many details of its pathogenesis remain to be elucidated, in particular the protein and mitochondrial quality control during stress responses have been implicated in monogenic PD variants. Especially the mitochondrial kinase PINK1 and the ubiquitin ligase PARKIN are known to cooperate in autophagy after mitochondrial damage. As autophagy is also induced by loss of trophic signaling and PINK1 gene expression is modulated after deprivation of cytokines, we analyzed to what extent trophic signals and starvation stress regulate PINK1 and PARKIN expression. Time course experiments with serum deprivation and nutrient starvation of human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells and primary mouse neurons demonstrated phasic induction of PINK1 transcript up to twofold and PARKIN transcript levels up to sixfold. The corresponding threefold starvation induction of PARKIN protein was limited by its translocation to lysosomes. Analysis of primary mouse cells from PINK1-knockout mice indicated that PARKIN induction and lysosomal translocation occurred independent of PINK1. Suppression of the PI3K-Akt-mTOR signaling by pharmacological agents modulated PARKIN expression accordingly. In conclusion, this expression survey demonstrates that PARKIN and PINK1 are coregulated during starvation and suggest a role of both PD genes in response to trophic signals and starvation stress.
Survival analysis of HDR brachytherapy versus reoperation versus temozolomide alone: a retrospective cohort analysis of recurrent glioblastoma multiforme
- Objectives Tumour recurrence of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) after initial treatment with surgical resection, radiotherapy and chemotherapy is an inevitable phenomenon. This retrospective cohort study compared the efficacy of interstitial high dose rate brachytherapy (HDR-BRT), re-resection and sole dose dense temozolomide chemotherapy (ddTMZ) in the treatment of recurrent glioblastoma after initial surgery and radiochemotherapy.
Design Retropective cohort study.
Setting Primary level of care with two participating centres. The geographical location was central Germany.
Participants From January 2005 to December 2010, a total of 111 patients developed recurrent GBM after initial surgery and radiotherapy with concomitant temozolomide. The inclusion criteria were as follows: (1) histology-proven diagnosis of primary GBM (WHO grade 4), (2) primary treatment with resection and radiochemotherapy, and (3) tumour recurrence/progression.
Interventions This study compared retrospectively the efficacy of interstitial HDR-BRT, re-resection and ddTMZ alone in the treatment of recurrent glioblastoma.
Primary and secondary outcome measures Median survival, progression free survival and complication rate.
Results Median survival after salvage therapy of the recurrence was 37, 30 and 26 weeks, respectively. The HDR-BRT group did significantly better than both the reoperation (p<0.05) and the ddTMZ groups (p<0.05). Moderate to severe complications in the HDR-BRT, reoperation and sole chemotherapy groups occurred in 5/50 (10%), 4/36 (11%) and 9/25 (36%) cases, respectively.
Conclusions CT-guided interstitial HDR-BRT attained higher survival benefits in the management of recurrent glioblastoma after initial surgery and radiotherapy with concurrent temozolomide in comparison with the other treatment modalities. The low risk of complications of the HDR-BRT and the fact that it can be delivered percutaneously in local anaesthesia render it a promissing treatment option for selected patients which should be further evaluated.
Platypnea-orthodeoxia due to osteoporosis and severe kyphosis: a rare cause for dyspnea and hypoxemia
- Platypnea orthodeoxia is a rare disorder characterized by dyspnea and arterial desaturation, exacerbated by the upright position and relieved when the subject is recumbent. We report the case of a 79-year old woman admitted to hospital with dyspnea who was thought to have restrictive ventilatory impairment due to osteoporosis and severe kyphosis. Interestingly, the dyspnea was aggravated in the upright position, whereas the symptoms improved in the supine position. Arterial blood gas analysis confirmed orthodeoxia. The lung function test showed only a mild obstructive and restrictive ventilation disorder. Echocardiography revealed a patent foramen ovale and an aneurysm of the atrial septum protruding into the left atrium, despite normal right atrial pressure. Transesophageal echocardiography showed a prominent Eustachian valve guiding a blood flow from the inferior vena cava directly onto the atrial septum, thereby pushing open the patent foramen ovale. Contrast-enhanced echocardiography confirmed a spontaneous right-to-left shunt through the patent foramen ovale. It was assumed that the platypnea-orthodeoxia was caused by a prominent Eustachian valve redirected to the patent foramen ovale as a result of severe osteoporosis with subsequent thoracic kyphosis and a change in the position of the entire heart. The patient underwent permanent transcatheter closure of the patent foramen ovale after hemodynamic assessment had confirmed a significant right-to-left shunt through it. After the procedure the arterial oxygen pressure increased significantly in the upright position and dyspnea improved.
The magnetite-based receptors in the beak of birds and their role in avian navigation
- Iron-rich structures have been described in the beak of homing pigeons, chickens and several species of migratory birds and interpreted as magnetoreceptors. Here, we will briefly review findings associated with these receptors that throw light on their nature, their function and their role in avian navigation. Electrophysiological recordings from the ophthalmic nerve, behavioral studies and a ZENK-study indicate that the trigeminal system, the nerves innervating the beak, mediate information on magnetic changes, with the electrophysiological study suggesting that these are changes in intensity. Behavioral studies support the involvement of magnetite and the trigeminal system in magnetoreception, but clearly show that the inclination compass normally used by birds represents a separate system. However, if this compass is disrupted by certain light conditions, migrating birds show 'fixed direction' responses to the magnetic field, which originate in the receptors in the beak. Together, these findings point out that there are magnetite-based magnetoreceptors located in the upper beak close to the skin. Their natural function appears to be recording magnetic intensity and thus providing one component of the multi-factorial 'navigational map' of birds.
Correlation from undiluted vitreous cytokines of untreated central retinal vein occlusion with spectral domain optical coherence tomography
Michael Janusz Koss
Frank H. Koch
- Purpose: To correlate inflammatory and proangiogenic key cytokines from undiluted vitreous of treatment-naïve central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) patients with SD-OCT parameters.
Methods: Thirty-five patients (age 71.1 years, 24 phakic, 30 nonischemic) underwent intravitreal combination therapy, including a single-site 23-gauge core vitrectomy. Twenty-eight samples from patients with idiopathic, non-uveitis floaterectomy served as controls. Interleukin 6 (IL-6), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A) levels were correlated with the visual acuity (logMar), category of CRVO (ischemic or nonischemic) and morphologic parameters, such as central macular thickness-CMT, thickness of neurosensory retina-TNeuro, extent of serous retinal detachment-SRT and disintegrity of the IS/OS and others.
Results: The mean IL-6 was 64.7pg/ml (SD ± 115.8), MCP-1 1015.7 ( ± 970.1), and VEGF-A 278.4 ( ± 512.8), which was significantly higher than the control IL-6 6.2 ± 3.4pg/ml (P=0.06), MCP-1 253.2 ± 73.5 (P<0.0000001) and VEGF-A 7.0 ± 4.9 (P<0.0006). All cytokines correlated highly with one another (correlation coefficient r=0.82 for IL-6 and MCP-1; r=0.68 for Il-6 and VEGF-A; r=0.64 for MCP-1 and VEGF-A). IL-6 correlated significantly with CMT, TRT, SRT, dIS/OS, and dELM. MCP-1 correlated significantly with SRT, dIS/OS, and dELM. VEGF-A correlated not with changes in SD-OCT, while it had a trend to be higher in the ischemic versus the nonischemic CRVO group (P=0.09).
Conclusions: The inflammatory cytokines were more often correlated with morphologic changes assessed by SD-OCT, whereas VEGF-A did not correlate with CRVO-associated changes in SD-OCT. VEGF inhibition alone may not be sufficient in decreasing the inflammatory response in CRVO therapy.
Effect of sonic hedgehog/β-TCP composites on bone healing within the critical-sized rat femoral defect
- The creation of entirely synthetically derived bone substitute materials which are as effective as autologous bone grafts is desirable. Osteogenesis involves the concerted action of several proteins within a signaling cascade. Hedgehog proteins act upstream of this cascade, inducing the expression of various bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and promoting physiological bone healing. Therefore, the hypothesis that hedgehog signaling in bone defects improves bone healing more than BMP signaling alone was tested. Recombinant N-terminal sonic hedgehog protein (N-SHh), BMP-2 or a combination of the two was added to β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and 5-mm femoral midshaft defects in nude rats were filled with these composites. The defects were stabilized with mini-plates. After eight weeks, the animals were sacrificed and the femora were explanted. The radiological evaluation was followed by a three-point bending test and histological examination. BMP-2/β-TCP composites showed a trend of increased stiffness compared with the controls (β-TCP without protein). N-SHh/β-TCP composites had lower stiffness compared with the control group and the N-SHh/BMP-2/β-TCP composites also had lower average stiffness compared with the controls (all not significant). Histomorphometry, however, revealed abundant cartilage and bone core formation in the N-SHh-composite groups. The sum of the new cartilage and bone was highest in the combination group N-SHh/BMP-2 (not significant). The addition of N-SHh to bone substitute materials appears to delay bone healing at the applied concentration and observation time but also showed a trend for higher amounts of ossifying cartilage.
The role of recombinant epidermal growth factor and serotonin in the stimulation of tumor growth in a SCCHN xenograft model
- One challenge of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) chemotherapy is a small percentage of tumor cells that arrest in the G0 phase of the cell cycle and are thus not affected by chemotherapy. This could be one reason for tumor recurrence at a later date. The recruitment of these G0-arresting cells into the active cell cycle and thus, proliferation, may increase the efficacy of chemotherapeutic agents. The aim of this study was to investigate whether stimulation with recombinant epidermal growth factor (EGF) or serotonin leads to an increased tumor cell proliferation in xenografts. Detroit 562 cells were injected into NMRI-Foxn1nu mice. Treatment was performed with 15 µg murine or human EGF, or 200 µg serotonin. The control mice were treated with Lactated Ringer's solution (5 mice/group). Tumor size was measured on days 4, 8 and 12 after tumor cell injection. The EGF stimulated mice showed a significantly higher tumor growth compared to the serotonin-stimulated mice and the untreated controls. In the present study, we show that it is possible to stimulate tumor cells in xenografts by EGF and thus, enhance cell proliferation, resulting in a higher tumor growth compared to the untreated control group. In our future investigations, we plan to include a higher number of mice, an adjustment of the EGF dosage and cell subanalysis, considering the heterogeneity of SCCHN tumors.
Thrombolysis in a stroke patient on dabigatran anticoagulation: case report and synopsis of published cases
- We present the case of an aphasic 77-year-old stroke patient with left distal M1 occlusion who received rt-PA for thrombolysis while on oral anticoagulant treatment with dabigatran (150 mg b.i.d.). Coagulation parameters were normal (thrombin time 20 s, aPTT 20 s, INR 1.08) and the patient improved from an NIHSS of 15 to 5 within 24 h with sonographic evidence of M1 recanalization. She did not develop intracranial bleeding complications but showed unusually large diffuse skin ecchymoses. In our report, we give an overview of all reported cases of thrombolysis under dabigatran anticoagulation and discuss the questions of medication adherence under novel oral anticoagulants (NOA) and the safety of NOA in terms of secondary intracerebral hemorrhage after stroke.
First human study in treatment of unresectable liver metastases from colorectal cancer with irinotecan-loaded beads (DEBIRI)
Martin G. Mack
Renate Maria Hammerstingl
Thomas J. Vogl
- The objective of this pilot clinical study was to assess the safety, technical feasibility, pharmacokinetic (PK) profile and tumour response of DC Bead™ with irinotecan (DEBIRI™) delivered by intra-arterial embolisation for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. Eleven patients with unresectable liver metastases from CRC, tumour burden <30% of liver volume, adequate haematological, liver and renal function, performance status of <2 were included in this study. Patients received up to 4 sessions of TACE with DEBIRI at 3-week intervals. Feasibility of the procedure, safety and tumour response were assessed after each cycle. PK was measured after the first cycle. Patients were followed up to 24 weeks. Only mild to moderate adverse events were observed. DEBIRI is a technically feasibile procedure; no technical complications were observed. Average Cmax for irinotecan and SN-38 was 194 ng/ml and 16.7 ng/ml, respectively, with average t½ of 4.6 h and 12.4 h following administration of DEBIRI. Best overall response during the study showed disease control in 9 patients (2 patients with partial response and 7 with stable disease, overall response rate of 18%). Our study shows that transarterial chemoembolisation with irinotecan-loaded DC beads (DEBIRI) is safe, technically feasible and effective with a good PK profile.