Introduction : The translational turn
- It is no longer possible to ignore how crucial the processes of cultural translation and their analysis have become, whether for cultural contact or interreligious relations and conflicts, for integration strategies in multicultural societies, or for the exploration of productive interfaces between humanities and the natural sciences. The globalization of world society, in particular, demands increased attention to mediation processes and problems of transfer, in terms both of the circulation of global representations and "travelling concepts" and of the interactions that make up cultural encounters. Here, translation becomes, on the one hand, a condition for global relations of exchange ("global translatability"), and on the other, a medium especially liable to reveal cultural differences, power imbalances and scope for action. An explicit focus on translation processes something increasingly prevalent across the humanities may thus enable us to scrutinize more closely current and historical situations of cultural encounter as complex processes of cultural translation. Translation is opened up to a transnational cultural practice that in no way remains restricted to binary relationships between national languages, national literatures or national cultures.
A minimal ubiquitous chromatin opening element (UCOE) effectively prevents silencing of juxtaposed heterologous promoters by epigenetic remodeling in multipotent and pluripotent stem cells
- Epigenetic silencing of transgene expression represents a major obstacle for the efficient genetic modification of multipotent and pluripotent stem cells. We and others have demonstrated that a 1.5 kb methylation-free CpG island from the human HNRPA2B1-CBX3 housekeeping genes (A2UCOE) effectively prevents transgene silencing and variegation in cell lines, multipotent and pluripotent stem cells, and their differentiated progeny. However, the bidirectional promoter activity of this element may disturb expression of neighboring genes. Furthermore, the epigenetic basis underlying the anti-silencing effect of the UCOE on juxtaposed promoters has been only partially explored. In this study we removed the HNRPA2B1 moiety from the A2UCOE and demonstrate efficient anti-silencing properties also for a minimal 0.7 kb element containing merely the CBX3 promoter. This DNA element largely prevents silencing of viral and tissue-specific promoters in multipotent and pluripotent stem cells. The protective activity of CBX3 was associated with reduced promoter CpG-methylation, decreased levels of repressive and increased levels of active histone marks. Moreover, the anti-silencing effect of CBX3 was locally restricted and when linked to tissue-specific promoters did not activate transcription in off target cells. Thus, CBX3 is a highly attractive element for sustained, tissue-specific and copy-number dependent transgene expression in vitro and in vivo.
A short note on the coastal dune vegetation south of Wonsan, the North Korea
- The paper presents some data on the Caricion kobomugi communities at a locality south of the city of Wonsan, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea. Two plant communities, namely the Ixeridetum repentis and the Carex pumila-community were described and their syntaxonomy and nomenclature briefly discussed.
Changes in phytocoenose structure in early phases of old-field succession in Poland
- The paper concerns the dynamics of phytocoenose structure in the early phases of secondary succession in four, spontaneously overgrowing old fields of different age in the Peucedano-Pinetum Mat. (1962) 1973 pine forest habitat (Poland). The studies were conducted during 1980-1982. It was concluded that the following phenomena are characteristic of the succession course:
1) wave-like changes in the number of species, state and spatial structure of biomass, minimum area size, species diversity and per cent of positive and negative interspecific associations; 2) tendency for decrease in species richness, total diversity, evenness and minimum area size; 3) tendency for increase in dominance; 4) directional changes in the floristic composition, i.e. decrease in the number of weed species and increase in the number of pine forest species; 5) gradual stabilization of the qualitative and quantitative structure characteristics.
Synecology and syntaxonomy of Apium repens (Jacq.) Lag. and Scirpus cariciformis Vest., in particular in the eastern part of Zeeuws-Vlaanderen (Province of Zeeland, the Netherlands)
Karel V. Sýkora
- Relevés of the rare species Apium repens and Scirpus cariciformis were tabulated and syntaxonomically interpreted. From the presented table and from the data by FUKAREK & VOIGTLANDER (1982) can be concluded that both species occur in two communities of the alliance Lolio-Potentillion anserinae viz. the Nasturtio-Alopecuretum geniculati Sykora 1982, the Triglochino-Agrostietum stoloniferae Konckzak 1968, and in related fragmentary communities. Besides S. cariciformis grows in the Agrostio-Trifolietum fragiferi Sykora 1982. Apium repens is considered to be a character-species of the association group with Eleocharis palustris ssp. uniglumis to which the above mentioned associations belong, while Scirpus cariciformis can be seen as a differential species of this association group. S. cariciformis occurs in the Parvocaricetea too, sometimes with a high presence class, e.g. in the Caricetum davallianae typicum (presence class III) and in the subass. blysmetosum compressi (IV). For the present, therefore, we do not consider it to be a character-species of any of the Lolio-Potentillion communities, nor of the alliance itself. To our opinion the Blysmo-Juncetum compressi Br.-Bl. 1918 ex Libb. 1932 can hardly be characterized as a separate unit and should therefore be rejected. With the help of ordination diagrams made by reciprocal averaging and with the use of indicator values as given by ELLENBERG (1979) the relation was illustrated between on the one hand the relevés and the composing species and on the other hand the main environmental factors, i.e. salt and nutrient content, moisture degree and acidity of the soil. The general decline of both species can be understood as the consequence of their specific hydrological requirements, viz. their dependence on a shallow flood during winter and spring, followed by a retreat of the surface water and a groundwater level remaining close to the surface during the summer. Their disappearance from mesotraphent grasslands is accelerated by the increase in the eutrophication mainly by modern agricultural practices.
Evaluation of the nationwide DEGUM breast ultrasound training program
- PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality standard of the nationwide breast ultrasound training program of the German Society of Ultrasound in Medicine (DEGUM) through objective parameters.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: 10 quality criteria, based on the recommendations of The National Association of Statutory Health Insurance Physicians (KBV), were defined for this study. All training units of the DEGUM received a questionnaire. The questionnaires and training material were analyzed.
RESULTS: All units met the required criteria pertaining to the trainer's qualification, duration per training course and the maximum number of participants per ultrasound machine. Only 1 course did not fulfill the required 50 % practical training time. The requirements to participate in the graduate course (200 self-made and documented cases) were not clearly conceived and a defined training log could be improved.
CONCLUSION: DEGUM breast ultrasound training offers trainees a high level of education based on the requirements of the KBV. Despite the high quality of training, the content of course announcements could be improved and an official and structured educational index could be meaningful.
Enterovirus infection of human β-cells activates dendritic cells and triggers innate antiviral responses: are enteroviruses convicted now?
- Comment on "Phagocytosis of enterovirus-infected pancreatic beta-cells triggers innate immune responses in human dendritic cells."
Quantitative mass spectrometric profiling of cancer-cell proteomes derived from liquid and solid tumors
- In-depth analyses of cancer cell proteomes are needed to elucidate oncogenic pathomechanisms, as well as to identify potential drug targets and diagnostic biomarkers. However, methods for quantitative proteomic characterization of patient-derived tumors and in particular their cellular subpopulations are largely lacking. Here we describe an experimental set-up that allows quantitative analysis of proteomes of cancer cell subpopulations derived from either liquid or solid tumors. This is achieved by combining cellular enrichment strategies with quantitative Super-SILAC-based mass spectrometry followed by bioinformatic data analysis. To enrich specific cellular subsets, liquid tumors are first immunophenotyped by flow cytometry followed by FACS-sorting; for solid tumors, laser-capture microdissection is used to purify specific cellular subpopulations. In a second step, proteins are extracted from the purified cells and subsequently combined with a tumor-specific, SILAC-labeled spike-in standard that enables protein quantification. The resulting protein mixture is subjected to either gel electrophoresis or Filter Aided Sample Preparation (FASP) followed by tryptic digestion. Finally, tryptic peptides are analyzed using a hybrid quadrupole-orbitrap mass spectrometer, and the data obtained are processed with bioinformatic software suites including MaxQuant. By means of the workflow presented here, up to 8,000 proteins can be identified and quantified in patient-derived samples, and the resulting protein expression profiles can be compared among patients to identify diagnostic proteomic signatures or potential drug targets.
Crystal structure of 2-benzamido-N-(2,2-diethoxyethyl)benzamide
Hassan B. Lazrek
Joachim W. Engels
- In the title compound, C20H24N2O4, both peptide bonds adopt a trans configuration with respect to the —N—H and —C=O groups. The dihedral angle between the aromatic rings is 53.58 (4)°. The molecular conformation is stabilized by an intramolecular N—H⋯O hydrogen bond. The crystal packing is characterized by zigzag chains of N—H⋯O hydrogen-bonded molecules running along the b-axis direction.
A revised infrageneric classification and synopsis of the Afro-Eurasian genus Moraea (Iridaceae: Irideae)
John C. Manning
- Molecular phylogenetic studies of Moraea Mill. and the inclusion of Barnardiella Goldblatt, Galaxia Thunb., Gynandriris Parl., Hexaglottis Vent., Homeria Vent. and Roggeveldia Goldblatt in the genus have rendered the existing infrageneric classification, dating from 1976, in need of substantial revision. In particular, subg. Moraea and subg. Vieusseuxia have been shown to be paraphyletic. We propose a new infrageneric classification, based, as far as current data permit, on phylogenetic principles. Monophyletic subgenera and sections are circumscribed based on molecular phylogenies alone or in combination with morphological considerations. We recognize 11 subgenera, 15 sections and three series, arranged as follows in phylogenetic sequence: Plumarieae; Visciramosae (with sect. Multifoliae and sect. Visciramosae); Moraea (with sect. Moraea and sect. Polyphyllae); Galaxia (with ser. Unguiculatae, ser. Eurystigma and ser. Galaxia); Monocephalae; Acaules; Polyanthes (with sect. Serpentinae, sect. Deserticola, sect. Hexaglottis, sect. Gynandriris, sect. Polyanthes and sect. Pseudospicatae); Grandifl orae; Vieusseuxia (with sect. Integres, sect. Vieusseuxia and sect. Villosae); and Homeria (with sect. Stipanthera, sect. Flexuosae, sect. Homeria and sect. Conantherae). Most are moderately to well circumscribed at the morphological level either by floral or vegetative characters, except subg. Moraea, which includes a small number of unspecialized species apparently not linked by any apomorphic features. With over 27 new species described in the past 25 years and another 60 transferred to the genus, Moraea now includes 214 species. We provide a full taxonomic synopsis of the genus.