- Gesellschaftswissenschaften (59)
ProtoSociology : an international journal of interdisciplinary research. Nr. 29, 2012 ; China's Modernization II
Sharia and Egypt’s constitution: an Iraqi blueprint
- The constitutional debates that took place in the run-up to the formation of the current Iraqi constitution provide a blueprint for the questions Islamic parties must address if they are to be insiders to the process of consolidating democracy.
Bräuchler, Birgit (ed.) (2009), Reconciling Indonesia. Grassroots Agency for Peace, London/ New York: Routledge, ISBN-13: 978-0415487047, 272 pages
Mass media in the process of transformation in Poland, Hungary and the Czech Republic after the fall of communism
Angelika Wioletta Wyka-Podkowka
- Hallin and Mancini’s seminal work Comparing Media Systems: Three Models of Media and
Politics has generated great interest and enthusiasm among media scholars to advance comparative
studies by applying the four dimensions to analyze media performance in different countries. Media
scholars agree that the four variables suggested by the two authors, i.e. the structure of media
markets, political parallelism, role of the state, and professionalization of journalism, provide a
good theoretical framework for the analysis of relationship between political and media system.
Their models for comparing media systems are based on a ‘most similar’ strategy,
analysing media and journalism only in stable Western democracies (i.e. Western European and
North American nations), and the purpose of the research presented in this paper was to develop
the model to include other parts of the world as well.
The most recent attempts to integrate East Central European media systems into the Hallin
and Mancini model, the conclusion being that the East Central European media share most
similarities with the Polarized Pluralist model. This conclusion follows not only Hallin and
Mancini, but also Splichal. The researcher in his earlier works argued that the changes in post-
Soviet media systems could be best explained by referring to the concept of Italianization - the
media are under strong state control, the degree of mass media partisanship is strong, low level of
journalistic professionalism, commercialization.
In fact, out of the three models only two (the Liberal and the Democratic Corporatist
model) are models in any strict sense, whereas the third - Polarized Pluralism - is better defined
as the lack of a model: the Liberal and Democratic Corporatist model are both built on a
consensus around core values, whereas the key feature of the Polarized Pluralism model is that
there is no consensus and no core values. De Albuquerque introduced other variables that also
would be highly relevant to the comparative analysis of media systems, but that have no place in
the Hallin & Mancini framework, the most important one being whether the political system is
presidential or parliamentary. For example, it has been demonstrated that media in presidential systems are more likely to focus on individual politicians and the administrative aspects of
government, as well as acting as an intermediary between different branches of government, than
are media in parliamentary systems.
Scholars dealing with the East Central Europe (and elsewhere) are too interested in fitting
their respective nations to one of the three models, rather than focusing on the variables and on the
comparative dimension. The scholars focus on the variables and on the comparative dimension: it
is strucking that their conclusions are precisely that a strict modeling approach (i.e. trying to fit
any given nation into the three-system model) is not enough if we want to understand media
system differences properly.
Hallin and Mancini (2004: 305) write that “The Democratic Corporatist Model, we suspect,
will have particularly strong relevance for the analysis of those parts of Eastern and Central
Europe that share much of the same historical development, like Poland, Hungary, the Czech
Republic, and the Baltic States”. At the same time, however, they suspect that scholars working on
the East Central European media will find much that is relevant in their analysis of the
The recent attempts integrate East Central European media systems into the Hallin and
Mancini model, the conclusion being that the East Central European media share most similarities
with the Polarized Pluralist model. This conclusion follows not only Hallin and Mancini, but also
Splichal. The researcher in his earlier works argued that the changes in post-Soviet media systems
could be best explaind by referring to the concept of Italianization - including the role of
clientelism, the strong role of the state, the role of the media as an instrument of political struggle,
and a low level of journalistic professionalism.
The Polarized Pluralist model all too often seems to be the default model – what is really
gained, analytically, by saying that post-Communist countries are all basically Polarized Pluralist
media system when they are different in many ways. This question needs further elaboration.
Instead of fitting the Italianization model into East Central Europe, scholars should start working on their own model, introducing other variables, that would allow them to investigate the
media in the region adequately.
Climate change, environment and migration in the Sahel : selected issues with a focus on Senegal and Mali
ProtoSociology : an international journal of interdisciplinary research. Nr. 28, 2011
Prosuming, or when customers turn collaborators: coordination and motivation of customer contribution
- This article investigates the phenomenon of increasing integration of customers and users into the organizational creation of value, focusing primarily on the dissolving boundaries between production and consumption. Concepts such as "prosuming", the "working customer", "produsing" and "interactive value creation" have been used to describe this phenomenon. Within the framework of a research project at the Goethe-University Frankfurt/Main, this debate was investigated theoretically as well as empirically in three case studies. The research question is as follows: Why do customers participate in "new types of prosuming" or "interactive value creation" and how are these processes coordinated by the firms? The results show a considerable range of motives and forms of coordination: The customers’ primary motives to voluntarily assume tasks and activities were both intrinsic and extrinsic in nature. The organizational models identified range from strategies of rationalization to prosuming as a basic business model to the collaborative and interactive value creation between the company and the web-community.
New forms of collaborative innovation and production on the internet : an interdisciplinary perspective
- Contents Introduction 1 New forms of collaborative innovation and production on the Internet : Volker Wittke and Heidemarie Hanekop Interdisciplinary perspectives on collaborative innovation and production: Conceptual debates 2 Customer Co-Creation: Open Innovation with Customers : Frank Piller, Christoph Ihl and Alexander Vossen 3 Governing Social Production : Niva Elkin-Koren 4 Trust Management in Online Communities : Audun Jøsang 5 Building a reputation system for Wikipedia : Christian Damsgaard Jensen 6 Cooperation in Wikipedia from a Network Perspective : Christian Stegbauer Firm driven collaborative innovation and production: Case studies 7 Managing a New Consumer Culture: “Working Consumers” in Web 2.0 as a Source of Corporate Feedback : Sabine Hornung, Frank Kleemann and G. Günter Voß 8 Prosuming, or when customers turn collaborators: coordination and motivation of customer contribution : Birgit Blättel-Mink, Raphael Menez, Dirk Dalichau, Daniel Kahnert 9 Role Confusion in Open Innovation Intermediary Arenas : Tobias Fredberg, Maria Elmquist, Susanne Ollila, Anna Yström List of Contributors
Contribution of online trading of used goods to resource efficiency: an empirical study of eBay users
- This paper discusses the sustainability impact (contribution to sustainability, reduction of adverse environmental impacts) of online second-hand trading. A survey of eBay users shows that a relationship between the trading of used goods and the protection of natural resources is hardly realized. Secondly, the environmental motivation and the willingness to act in a sustainable manner differ widely between groups of consumers. Given these results from a user perspective, the paper tries to find some objective hints of online second-hand trading’s environmental impact. The greenhouse gas emissions resulting from the energy used for the trading transactions seem to be considerably lower than the emissions due to the (avoided) production of new goods. The paper concludes with a set of recommendations for second-hand trade and consumer policy. Information about the sustainability benefits of purchasing second-hand goods should be included in general consumer information, and arguments for changes in behavior should be targeted to different groups of consumers. Keywords: online marketplaces; online auctions; consumer; electronic commerce; used products; second-hand market; sustainable consumption
ProtoSociology : an international journal of interdisciplinary research. Nr. 27, 2011