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#### Institute

- Quantum-mechanical treatment of high-energy channeling radiation (1995)
- An alternative theoretical description of axial electron channeling in the multi-GeV region has been developed. We solve a kinetic equation to evaluate an electron distribution function in axially oriented single crystals. Based on the single-string model, the required matrix elements for radiation and scattering by lattice vibrations are calculated employing solutions of the Dirac equation in cylindrical coordinates. Results obtained for 150-GeV electrons propagating along the 〈110〉 axis of germanium are in good agreement with experimental observations.

- Cold-fission yields at effective excitation energies (1995)
- The experimental cold-fission yields for the system 233U(nth, f) are analyzed as function of the effective total excitation energy (TXE). The nuclear level density effect is taken into account at higher TXE, in order to benefit by the lower experimental data uncertainty as well as to avoid the quantitative account of the level densities close to fragment ground states. In this way the odd-even staggering which appears in the yields extrapolated at zero excitation energy by using the level densities, vanishes. We conclude that the cold nuclear fragmentation theory including the dynamical model describes well the experimental data.

- Two-dimensional nuclear inertia : analytical relationships (1995)
- The components of the nuclear inertia tensor, functions of the separation distance R and of the radius of the light fragment R2, BRR(R,R2), BRR2(R,R2), and BR2R2(R,R2) are calculated within the Werner-Wheeler approximation, by using the parametrization of two intersected symmetric or asymmetric spheres. Analytical relationships are derived. When projected to a path R2=R2(R), the reduced mass is obtained at the touching point. The two one-dimensional parametrizations with R2=const, and the volume V2=const previously studied, are found to be particular cases of the present more general approach. Illustrations for the cold fission, cluster radioactivity, and α decay of 252Cf are given.

- Channeling process in a bent crystal (1996)
- We have investigated the channeling process of charged particles in a bent crystal. Invoking simple assumptions we derive a criterion, which determines whether channeling occurs or not. We obtain the same criterion using the Dirac equation. It is shown that the centrifugal force acting on the particle in the bent crystal significantly alters the effective transverse potential. The cases of axial and planar channeling are considered. The channeling probability and the dechanneling probability due to tunneling of the particle under the barrier in the effective transverse potential are estimated. These probabilities depend on the specific scaling parameter characterizing the process. Using the quasiclassical theory of synchrotron radiation we have calculated the contribution to the radiation spectrum, which arises due to the curvature of the channel. This contribution becomes significant to TeV electrons or positrons. Some practical consequences of our results are briefly discussed.

- Cluster description of cold (neutronless) alpha ternary fission of 252Cf (1999)
- A coplanar three body cluster model (two deformed fragments and an alpha particle) similar to the model used for the description of cold binary fission was employed for the description of cold (neutronless) alpha accompanied fission of 252Cf. No preformation factors were considered. The three body potential was computed with the help of a double folding potential generated by the M3Y-NN effective interaction and realistic fragment ground state deformations. From the minimum action principle, the alpha particle trajectory equations, the corresponding ternary barriers, and an approximate WKB expression for the barrier penetrability are obtained. The relative cold ternary yields were calculated as the ratio of the penetrability of a given ternary fragmentation and the sum of the penetrabilities of all possible cold ternary fragmentations. Different scenarios were considered depending on the trajectories of the fragments. It was shown that two regions of cold fragmentation exist, a deformed one corresponding to large fragment deformations and a spherical one around 132Sn, similarly to the case of the cold binary fission of 252Cf. We have shown that for the scenario corresponding to the Lagrange point, where all forces acting on the alpha particle are in equilibrium, the cold alpha ternary yields of 252Cf are strongly correlated with the cold binary yields of the daughter nucleus 248Cm into the same heavy fragments. For all other scenarios only the spherical splittings are favored. We concluded that due to the present available experimental data on cold alpha ternary yields only the Lagrange scenario could describe the cold alpha ternary fission of 252Cf.

- Cold fission as cluster decay with dissipation (1996)
- For cold (neutronless) fission we consider an analytical model of quantum tunneling with dissipation through a barrier U(q) evaluated with a M3Y nucleon-nucleon force. We calculate the tunneling spectrum, i.e., the fission rate as a function of the total kinetic energy of the fragments. The theoretical results are compared with the experimental data obtained for the fine structure of two cold fission modes of 252Cf: 148Ba+104Mo and 146Ba+106Mo. Taking into account the dissipative coupling of the potential function U(q) and of the momentum p with all the other neglected coordinates, we obtain a remarkable agreement with the experimental data. We conclude that the cold fission process is a spontaneous decay with a spectrum determined by the shape of the barrier and an amplitude depending on the strength of the dissipative coupling.

- Prospects for parity-nonconservation experiments with highly charged heavy ions (1996)
- We discuss the prospects for parity-nonconservation experiments with highly charged heavy ions. Energy levels and parity mixing for heavy ions with 2–5 electrons are calculated. We investigate two-photon transitions and the possibility of observing interference effects between weak-matrix elements and Stark matrix elements for periodic electric field configurations.

- Self-energy correction to the hyperfine structure splitting of hydrogenlike atoms (1996)
- A first testing ground for QED in the combined presence of a strong Coulomb field and a strong magnetic field is provided by the precise measurement of the hyperfine structure splitting of hydrogenlike 209Bi. We present a complete calculation of the one-loop self-energy correction to the first-order hyperfine interaction for various nuclear charges. In the low-Z regime we almost perfectly agree with the Z alpha expansion, but for medium and high Z there is a substantial deviation.

- Structure of the vacuum in nuclear matter: a nonperturbative approach (1997)
- We compute the vacuum polarization correction to the binding energy of nuclear matter in the Walecka model using a nonperturbative approach. We first study such a contribution as arising from a ground-state structure with baryon-antibaryon condensates. This yields the same results as obtained through the relativistic Hartree approximation of summing tadpole diagrams for the baryon propagator. Such a vacuum is then generalized to include quantum effects from meson fields through scalar-meson condensates which amounts to summing over a class of multiloop diagrams. The method is applied to study properties of nuclear matter and leads to a softer equation of state giving a lower value of the incompressibility than would be reached without quantum effects. The density-dependent effective sigma mass is also calculated including such vacuum polarization effects.

- Transition to delta matter from hot, dense nuclear matter within a relativistic mean field formulation of the nonlinear sigma and omega model (1997)
- An investigation of the transition to delta matter is performed based on a relativistic mean field formulation of the nonlinear sigma and omega model. We demonstrate that in addition to the Delta-meson coupling, the occurrence of the baryon resonance isomer also depends on the nucleon-meson coupling. Our results show that for the favored phenomenological value of m* and K, the Delta isomer exists at baryon density ~ 2–3 p0 if beta=1.31 is adopted. For universal coupling of the nucleon and Delta, the Delta density at baryon density ~ 2–3 p0 and temperature ~ 0.4–0.5 fm-1 is about normal nuclear matter density, which is in accord with a recent experimental finding.