Studies on the Xeniidae of the Red Sea : their ecology, physiology, taxonomy and phylogeny / by H. A. F. Gohar (Ḥāmid ʿAbd-al-Fattāḥ Ǧauhar). [Mit arab. Zsfassung]
Ḥāmid ʿAbd-al-Fattāḥ Ǧauhar
Glorification of violence in british films depicting football hooliganism
Subxerophilous and mesophilous grasslands of the Biele Karpaty Mts. (White Carpathian Mts.) in Slovakia
- A long-term systematic survey of grassland communities was performed in the Biele Karpaty Mts. in Slovakia. The main aims of the research were i) syntaxonomical classification of meso- and subxerophilous grassland vegetation, ii) analysis of the main gradients in species composition, iii) evaluation of the effect of environmental factors on species composition of grasslands. The data set included 342 phytosociological relevés of grasslands recorded between 1991 and 1999. For the classification of relevés to associations, the expert system for identification of grassland vegetation of Slovakia was used. The main environmental gradients of species composition were analysed by detrended correspondence analysis (DCA). For the ecological interpretation of ordination axes Ellenberg indicator values were used. The relationship between species composition and environmental factors (geology, pedology, climate, topography, management) was analysed by canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). The expert system identified (according to association definitions) 220 phytosociological relevés (64% of the whole data set). Grassland communities were classified within seven associations belonging to four alliances and three classes: Festuco-Brometea: Bromion erecti and Cirsio-Brachypodion pinnati; Molinio- Arrhenatheretea: Arrhenatherion; Nardetea strictae: Violion caninae. The results of the DCA support our assumption that the main environmental gradient in species compositions of grasslands is related to moisture and soil reaction (content of CaCO3 in the soil). The results of the direct gradient analysis (CCA) show that all 23 environmental variables explained 16.15% of the variability of the species data. The most important factors affecting the data variation were precipitation and geological bedrock.
Multisensory legal machines and legal act production
- This paper expands on the concept of legal machine which was presented first at IRIS 2011
in Salzburg. The research subjects are (1) the creation of institutional facts by machines, and (2)
multimodal communication of legal content to humans. Simple examples are traffic lights and vending
machines. Complicated examples are computer-based information systems in organisations, form
proceedings workflows, and machines which replace officials in organisations. The actions performed
by machines have legal importance and draw legal consequences. Machines similarly as humans can
be imposed status-functions of legal actors. The analogy of machines with humans is in the focus of
this paper. Legal content can be communicated by machines and can be perceived by all of our senses.
The content can be expressed in multimodal languages: textual, visual, acoustic, gestures, aircraft
manoeuvres, etc. The concept of encapsulatation of human into machine is proposed. Herein humanintended
actions are communicated through the machine’s output channel. Encapsulations can be
compared with deities and mythical creatures that can send gods’ messages to people through the
human mouth. This paper also aims to identify law production patterns by machines.
Handwriting analysis for diagnosis and prognosis of Parkinson’s disease
Rüdiger W. Brause
- At present, there are no quantitative, objective methods for diagnosing the Parkinson disease. Existing methods of quantitative analysis by myograms suffer by inaccuracy and patient strain; electronic tablet analysis is limited to the visible drawing, not including the writing forces and hand movements. In our paper we show how handwriting analysis can be obtained by a new electronic pen and new features of the recorded signals. This gives good results for diagnostics. Keywords: Parkinson diagnosis, electronic pen, automatic handwriting analysis
Ice-cored moraines in Scandinavia
Horticultural markets promote alien species invasions: an Estonian case study of herbaceous perennials
Robert G. H. Bunce
- Gardening is a popular pastime, but commercial horticulture is responsible for the introduction of alien species and contributes to invasions in a variety of ways. Although an extensive international literature is available on plant invasions, it is still important at the national level to examine the influence of local factors. Accordingly, 17 nurseries in Estonia that cultivated and sold perennial alien species were selected, and a list of species and prices was compiled. The relationships between species status, and factors such as their abundance in the wild were examined statistically. A qualitative list of the nationally problematic species among herbaceous perennials was also completed. A total of 880 taxa were recorded, of which 10.3% were native and 89.7% alien. In all, 87.3% of the alien species were still confined to cultivated areas. The ecological and socio-economic characteristics of the taxa were described, and lists of the families of casual, naturalised and invasive aliens were provided. Both native and increasing wild alien species have a very similar profile on the market. Alien species that are less expensive, widely available and have more cultivars per species on the market are also more likely to escape. The invasive status and abundance of escaped aliens in an area increases with residence time. In general, socio-economic factors create new and reflect previous propagule pressures from commercial horticulture, which continuously increase the likelihood of alien species surviving and invading new areas. Our findings suggest that these national socioeconomic market-related factors explain much of the invasiveness of various perennial ornamental species, and therefore regional and national authorities urgently need to regulate and control the ornamental plant trade to diminish the risk of new invasions.
Hazar Lake sunken city
The wells, subterranean passage, tunnels and water systems of Hagia Sophia in Istanbul
- In November 2005, a survey was begun of the wells in and around Hagia Sophia Church in Istanbul. The long-term goal of the survey is the understanding of the function of the tunnels and the water systems used for Hagia Sophia and its surroundings during the Byzantine and the Ottoman periods. Alternate research methods, such as geophysical research, will be used in future surveys. The 2005 survey examined the channels that run from under the narthex and continue northwards and the southwards of the building as well as channels that run towards the atrium, hippodrome, and garden in the north. The survey resulted in the first photos of the well-bottoms in the history of Hagia Sophia.
The development of infants' action-related object knowledge : deferred imitation and eye tracking studies in 12- and 18-month-olds
- Imitation paradigms are used in various domains of developmental psychological research to assess various cognitive processes such as memory (deferred imitation), action perception and action understanding (mainly direct imitation), as well as categorization and learning about objects (deferred imitation with a change in target objects and generalized imitation). Although these processes are most likely not independent from each other, their relations are still largely unclear. On the one hand, deferred imitation studies have shown that infants' performance improves with increasing age, resulting in the reproduction of more target actions after longer delay intervals. On the other hand, imitation studies focusing on infants' action understanding have found that infants do not necessarily imitate the model's exact actions – actions or action steps that seem to be irrational or irrelevant are omitted by infants under certain circumstances (selective imitation). Additionally, findings of imitation studies that require a transfer of the target actions to novel objects have demonstrated that infants do not only learn about actions, but also about objects, when they engage in imitation.
The present dissertation aims at integrating different perspectives of imitation research by testing 12- and 18-month-old infants in deferred imitation tests consisting of functional vs. arbitrary target actions, and by combining deferred imitation with eye tracking in half of the experiments. A deferred imitation paradigm was chosen to assess memory performance. Systematic variation of target action characteristics enabled the assessment of infants' imitation pattern, i.e., if they would imitate one kind of target actions more frequently than the other. Functionality was chosen as the action characteristic in focus because function is an object's most important property, thus this variation might shed some light on infants' learning about objects in the context of an imitation test. The main goal of the eye tracking experiments was to tackle the relations between infants' visual attention to, and deferred imitation of, different kinds of target actions.
The behavioral experiments revealed that both 12- and 18-month-olds imitated significantly more functional than arbitrary target actions after a delay of 30 minutes. In addition, while 12-month-olds showed a memory effect only for functional actions, 18-month-olds showed a memory effect for both kinds of actions. Thus, 12-month-olds imitated strictly selectively, and 18-month-olds imitated more exactly. This shows that the well established memory effect is modulated by target action functionality, which affects 12- and 18-month-olds' imitation differently. Furthermore, when retested after a two weeks delay, 18-month-olds' performance rates of functional and arbitrary target actions decreased parallel. This suggests that selective imitation is not affected by the duration of the retention interval, and that selection of target actions takes place at an earlier stage of action perception and memory processes.
In the eye tracking experiments, both 12- and 18-month-olds' imitation patterns replicated the findings of the behavioral experiments, showing consistently higher imitation rates of functional than arbitrary target actions. Contrary to this, infants' fixation times to the target actions were not affected by target action functionality. This contrast was supported by statistical analyses that found no clear correspondence between visual attention to and deferred imitation of target actions. This suggests that selective imitation cannot be explained by selective visual attention. Nevertheless, finer-grained analyses of gaze and imitation data in the 18 months old group suggested that infants' increased attention to the social-communicative context of the imitation task was related to more exact imitation, i.e. imitation of not only functional, but also arbitrary target actions.
The findings are discussed against the background of imitation theories, with regard to the relations between different cognitive processes underlying infants' imitation, such as memory, action perception and learning about objects.