Die Burggrafen auf Schloss Spangenberg, insbesondere Hans Wilhelm Kirchhof und seine Werke
Molluschi terrestri e d'acqua dolce delle Alpe Liguri
- Gli Autori segnalano per il territorio delle Alpi Liguri 144 specie di Molluschi terrestri e 25 specie di Molluschi acquidulcicoli. L'elenco sistematico riporta, per ciascuna specie, eventuali sinonimie, segnalazioni di letteratura e di collezione e i risultati di ricerche di campagna effettuate dagli Autori negli anni 1977-84; inoltre, vengono fornite la geonemia e brevi considerazioni sulla distribuzionc geografica, le caratteristiche ecologichc ed eventuali problemi tassonomici. Segue un esame critico dei taxa di pteseilza dubbia o di incerta collocazione sistematica, ed un breve elenco delle specie presenti nelle aree circostanti l'area in esame, ma assenti in Alpi Liguri. La malacofauna terrestre delle Alpi Liguri (considerate in toto o nei tre Settori del Cuneese, Imperiese e Savonese) viene confrontata con quella di tre settori piu interni delle Alpi Occidentali (Alpi Marittime settentrionali, Alpi Cozie, Alpi Graie), di un settorc alpino meridionale (Alpi Marittime francesi) e di due settori appenninici (Appennino Ligure ed Aipi Apuane), mediante indici di similarit i di tipo binario (presenza-assenza di specie). Vengono inoltre confrontati tra loro gli spettri corologici delle aree sopracitate. L'area studiata non appare uniforme da1 punto di vista faunistico, ma diversamente caratterizzata nei diversi settori. Per la particolare posizione geografica e le peculiari caratteristiche paleoclimatiche, geomorfologiche ed ambientali, il popolamento malacologico delle Alpi Liguri si presenta qualitativamente vario ed ariicchito da correnti rnigratorie di diversa provenienza (alpina, W-mediterranes, appenninicii). Nella caratterizzazione della fauna e degli endemismi, sembra importante il ruolo di area di rifugio assunto dalle Alpi Liguri in epoca glaciale.
Effects of preliminary information in a go versus no-go task
Steven A Hackley
- A series of studies using a GO versus No-go task examined the question of whether preliminary information available early in the recognition of a stimulus is made available to later processes before stimulus recognition is finished, a question relevant to the controversy between discrete and continuous models. Experiment 1 showed that a Go resporise is faster following a cue indicating that the response probably would be required than following a cue indicating it probably would not be required. Experiments 2-7 were conducted to find out whether analogous preparation occurred when probability of the Go response was signalied by easily discriminable features of a single stimulus rather than a separate cue. The effect was observed when the easily disenminable features uniquely determined the name of the stimulus letter, but not when they merely indicated that the stirnulus name was one of two visually similar letters. These results are consistent with the Asynchronous Discrete Coding model, in which the perceptual system makes available to later processes only preliminary information corresponding to discretely activated stimulus attributes.
Cirripedia (Crustacea) from the "Campagne Biacores" in the Azores region, including a generic revision of Verrucidae
Paulo S. Young
- The cirripeds sampled by the N. O. Jean Charcot from the Azores region include thirty-four species: twenty lepadomorphs, eight verrucomorphs and six balanomorphs. Among these are two new species: Arcoscalpellum eponkos n.sp. and Tesseropora arnoldi n.sp. and several little known species. The family Verrucidae is revised, and a key to the genera is included. Verruca and Metaverruca are rediagnosed, two new genera are proposed: Newmaniuerruca n.g. and Costatoverruca n.g. A list of recent species of Verrucidae is provided, reported with keys to all of the species. Forty-five species of cirripeds are reported from the Azores region, of which one third are endemic.
From sea to land and beyond : new insights into the evolution of euthyneuran Gastropoda (Mollusca)
- Background The Euthyneura are considered to be the most successful and diverse group of Gastropoda. Phylogenetically, they are riven with controversy. Previous morphology-based phylogenetic studies have been greatly hampered by rampant parallelism in morphological characters or by incomplete taxon sampling. Based on sequences of nuclear 18S rRNA and 28S rRNA as well as mitochondrial 16S rRNA and COI DNA from 56 taxa, we reconstructed the phylogeny of Euthyneura utilising Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian inference methods. The evolution of colonization of freshwater and terrestrial habitats by pulmonate Euthyneura, considered crucial in the evolution of this group of Gastropoda, is reconstructed with Bayesian approaches. Results We found several well supported clades within Euthyneura, however, we could not confirm the traditional classification, since Pulmonata are paraphyletic and Opistobranchia are either polyphyletic or paraphyletic with several clades clearly distinguishable. Sacoglossa appear separately from the rest of the Opisthobranchia as sister taxon to basal Pulmonata. Within Pulmonata, Basommatophora are paraphyletic and Hygrophila and Eupulmonata form monophyletic clades. Pyramidelloidea are placed within Euthyneura rendering the Euthyneura paraphyletic. Conclusion Based on the current phylogeny, it can be proposed for the first time that invasion of freshwater by Pulmonata is a unique evolutionary event and has taken place directly from the marine environment via an aquatic pathway. The origin of colonisation of terrestrial habitats is seeded in marginal zones and has probably occurred via estuaries or semi-terrestrial habitats such as mangroves.
Molecular similarity for machine learning in drug development : poster presentation
- Poster presentation In pharmaceutical research and drug development, machine learning methods play an important role in virtual screening and ADME/Tox prediction. For the application of such methods, a formal measure of similarity between molecules is essential. Such a measure, in turn, depends on the underlying molecular representation. Input samples have traditionally been modeled as vectors. Consequently, molecules are represented to machine learning algorithms in a vectorized form using molecular descriptors. While this approach is straightforward, it has its shortcomings. Amongst others, the interpretation of the learned model can be difficult, e.g. when using fingerprints or hashing. Structured representations of the input constitute an alternative to vector based representations, a trend in machine learning over the last years. For molecules, there is a rich choice of such representations. Popular examples include the molecular graph, molecular shape and the electrostatic field. We have developed a molecular similarity measure defined directly on the (annotated) molecular graph, a long-standing established topological model for molecules. It is based on the concepts of optimal atom assignments and iterative graph similarity. In the latter, two atoms are considered similar if their neighbors are similar. This recursive definition leads to a non-linear system of equations. We show how to iteratively solve these equations and give bounds on the computational complexity of the procedure. Advantages of our similarity measure include interpretability (atoms of two molecules are assigned to each other, each pair with a score expressing local similarity; this can be visualized to show similar regions of two molecules and the degree of their similarity) and the possibility to introduce knowledge about the target where available. We retrospectively tested our similarity measure using support vector machines for virtual screening on several pharmaceutical and toxicological datasets, with encouraging results. Prospective studies are under way.
Molecular basis of telaprevir resistance due to V36 and T54 mutations in the NS3-4A protease of the hepatitis C virus
Francisco S. Domingues
- Background The inhibitor telaprevir (VX-950) of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) protease NS3-4A has been tested in a recent phase 1b clinical trial in patients infected with HCV genotype 1. This trial revealed residue mutations that confer varying degrees of drug resistance. In particular, two protease positions with the mutations V36A/G/L/M and T54A/S were associated with low to medium levels of drug resistance during viral breakthrough, together with only an intermediate reduction of viral replication fitness. These mutations are located in the protein interior and far away from the ligand binding pocket. Results Based on the available experimental structures of NS3-4A, we analyze the binding mode of different ligands. We also investigate the binding mode of VX-950 by protein-ligand docking. A network of non-covalent interactions between amino acids of the protease structure and the interacting ligands is analyzed to discover possible mechanisms of drug resistance. We describe the potential impact of V36 and T54 mutants on the side chain and backbone conformations and on the non-covalent residue interactions. We propose possible explanations for their effects on the antiviral efficacy of drugs and viral fitness. Molecular dynamics simulations of T54A/S mutants and rotamer analysis of V36A/G/L/M side chains support our interpretations. Experimental data using an HCV V36G replicon assay corroborate our findings. Conclusion T54 mutants are expected to interfere with the catalytic triad and with the ligand binding site of the protease. Thus, the T54 mutants are assumed to affect the viral replication efficacy to a larger degree than V36 mutants. Mutations at V36 and/or T54 result in impaired interaction of the protease residues with the VX-950 cyclopropyl group, which explains the development of viral breakthrough variants.
Sechs Gedichte über die Frankfurter Messe
Gunter von Minckwitz
- Meeting Abstract : 27. Deutscher Krebskongress. Berlin, 22.-26.03.2006.
Docetaxel, Adriamycin, Cyclophosphamide (TAC) is considered today as one treatment option for patients with node-positive primary breast cancer. However, treatment is associated with anaemia grade 1-4 (2-4) in up to 95% (36%) of patients. We prospectively investigated the use of a primary prophylaxis with Darbepoetin alfa once every 3 weeks in 35 patients receiving six to eight cycles of TAC as neoadjuvant treatment for breast cancer. Darbepoetin treatment started on day 1 of a TAC cycle if haemoglobin (Hb) was ≤ 14.0 g/dl. Dosage was adapted to 9 µg/kg if Hb was ≤ 13.0 g/dl on day 21 of the previous cycle, to 4.5 µg/kg if Hb was between 13.0 and 14.0 g/dl and was discontinued if Hb increased to ≥ 14 g/dl. The primary aim was to prevent Hb levels ≤ 12 g/dl before surgery. During 112 (50.2%) and 93 (41.7%) of 223 cycles, 4.5 µg/kg and 9 µg/kg Darbepoetin were given, respectively. Dosage was decreased from 9 to 4.5 µg/kg in 21 (60%) patients and 28 (12.4%) cycles. Treatment was discontinued due to Hb > 14.0 g/dl in 12 (34.3%) patients and 13 (5.4%) cycles. Hb level on day 21 of the last cycle was ≤ 12.0 g/dl in 4 (11.4%) patients. Eighteen (51.4%) patients during 36 (16.1%) cycles showed Hb levels ≤ 12 g/dl throughout treatment. No NCI-CTC grade 2 to 4 anaemia was observed. Symptoms of fatigue (FACT-AN) decreased slightly throughout treatment. Anaemia during TAC chemotherapy can be avoided by a single injection of Darbepoetin alfa every 3 weeks.
Erste Ergebnisse einer Vertebroplastieschraube unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Zementaustrittsrate im CT : eine retrospektive Analyse ; meeting abstract
Michael André Rauschmann
- Fragestellung: Eine neu entwickelte Vertebroplastieschraube (Omega 21-System, Biomet©) wurde in Ihrem ersten klinischen Einsatz durch postoperative CT- und nativradiologische Kontrollen in Bezug auf den Füllungsgrad im Wirbelkörper und die Zementaustrittsrate paravertebral, intradiscal und intraspinal untersucht. Methode: Im Zeitraum von November 2005 bis Januar 2006 wurden 21 Patienten mit einer mono- oder multisegmentalen Spondylodese, in Kombination mit Vertebroplastieschrauben versorgt. Die Indikationen, welche zum Einsatz dieses Schraubentyps geführt haben, waren Revisionen von gelockerten Pedikelschrauben (5), Osteolysen im Wirbelkörperbereich, hervorgerufen durch Metastasen verschiedener Primärtumore (9) und osteoporotische Frakturversorgungen (7). Die Art des Zementaustrittes wurde nach der Klassifikation von Yeom et al.(2003) evaluiert. Ergebnisse: Bei 21 Patienten wurden 54 Wirbelkörper mit insgesamt 97 Vertebroplastieschrauben versorgt. Im Durchschnitt wurde pro Schraube ein Volumen von 2 ccm PMMA-Zement (Osteopal V©) mittels 1 ccm-Spritzen appliziert. In 35 (65%) Wirbelkörpern konnte ein Zementaustritt im CT nachgewiesen werden. 21 (60%) Wirbelkörper zeigten die Austrittsform vom Typ S (Segmentvene). Typ B-Austrittsformen (Vena basivertebralis) konnten in 9 Wirbelkörpern und Typ C-Austrittsformen (Korticalisdefekte) in 5 (14%) nachgewiesen werden. Während der Nachuntersuchungsperiode zw. 2-14 Monaten zeigte sich keine Schraubenlockerung. Weiterhin konnte klinisch in einem Fall eine Fußheberparese postoperativ diagnostiziert werden. Darüberhinaus fanden sich keine weiteren Komplikationen, die mit der neu entwickelten Schraube in Zusammenhang gebracht werden konnten. Schlussfolgerung: Die Durchführung der gleichzeitigen Vertebroplastie unter Verwendung eines Pedikelschraubensystemes ist durch die Entwicklung der Vertebroplastieschraube deutlich vereinfacht worden. Vertebroplastieschrauben führen weiterhin zu einer verbesserten Augmentation in pathologisch verändertem Knochen mit gleichmäßiger Distribution des injizierten Zementes. Hierdurch ergeben sich Indikationserweiterungen und Verkürzungen von Spondylodesestrecken. Die Zementaustrittsrate von 65% liegt unter den publizierten Austrittsraten von konventionellen Vertebroplastien.