- Dynamic Imaging of Coherent Sources Reveals Different Network Connectivity Underlying the Generation and Perpetuation of Epileptic Seizures (2013)
- The concept of focal epilepsies includes a seizure origin in brain regions with hyper synchronous activity (epileptogenic zone and seizure onset zone) and a complex epileptic network of different brain areas involved in the generation, propagation, and modulation of seizures. The purpose of this work was to study functional and effective connectivity between regions involved in networks of epileptic seizures. The beginning and middle part of focal seizures from ictal surface EEG data were analyzed using dynamic imaging of coherent sources (DICS), an inverse solution in the frequency domain which describes neuronal networks and coherences of oscillatory brain activities. The information flow (effective connectivity) between coherent sources was investigated using the renormalized partial directed coherence (RPDC) method. In 8/11 patients, the first and second source of epileptic activity as found by DICS were concordant with the operative resection site; these patients became seizure free after epilepsy surgery. In the remaining 3 patients, the results of DICS / RPDC calculations and the resection site were discordant; these patients had a poorer post-operative outcome. The first sources as found by DICS were located predominantly in cortical structures; subsequent sources included some subcortical structures: thalamus, Nucl. Subthalamicus and cerebellum. DICS seems to be a powerful tool to define the seizure onset zone and the epileptic networks involved. Seizure generation seems to be related to the propagation of epileptic activity from the primary source in the seizure onset zone, and maintenance of seizures is attributed to the perpetuation of epileptic activity between nodes in the epileptic network. Despite of these promising results, this proof of principle study needs further confirmation prior to the use of the described methods in the clinical praxis.
- (E)-1-(4-Chlorobenzylidene)thiosemicarbazide (2011)
- In the crystal of the title compound, C8H8ClN3S, molecules are connected by N—H[cdots, three dots, centered]S hydrogen bonds into strips parallel to the (112) planes and running along . One of the amino H atoms is not involved in a classical hydrogen bond. In addition, there is a rather short intermolecular Cl ... S distance of 3.3814 (5) Å.
- 5-(3,4,5-Trimethoxyphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2(3H)-thione (2010)
- The two rings in the title compound, C11H12N2O4S, are roughly coplanar [dihedral angle = 6.77 (8)°]. Whereas the two outer methyl groups of the three methoxy groups are almost coplanar with the aromatic ring to which they are attached [C—C—O—C torsion angles = 8.5 (3) and -8.3 (3)°], the methyl group of the central methoxy substituent is not [C—C—C—C = -78.4 (3)°]. The crystal packing is stabilized by N—H ... O hydrogen bonding.