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- Collective excitations of the QED vacuum (1993)
- Using relativistic Green’s-function techniques we examined single-electron excitations from the occupied Dirac sea in the presence of strong external fields. The energies of these excited states are determined taking into account the electron-electron interaction. We also evaluate relativistic transition strengths incorporating retardation, which represents a direct measure of correlation effects. The shifts in excitation energies are computed to be lower than 0.5%, while the correlated transition strengths never deviate by more than 10% from their bare values. A major conclusion is that we found no evidence for collectivity in the electron-positron field around heavy and superheavy nuclei.

- Delta-electron emission in deep-inelastic heavy-ion collisions (1980)
- This paper reports calculations of the influence of a reaction time T>10-21 s in deep-inelastic Xe-Pb collisions on the energy spectrum of δ electrons ejected in the same collision. It is shown that the lifetime of the superheavy composite system causes pronounced oscillations of width ε=h/T in the electron distribution, which survive the inclusion of multistep excitations and the folding with a lifetime distribution function. This effect may serve as an atomic clock for deep-inelastic collisions.

- Description of atomic excitations in heavy-ion reactions (1983)
- Excitations of the atomic shell in heavy-ion collisions are influenced by the presence of a nuclear reaction. In the present Rapid Communication we point out the equivalence between a semiclassical description based on the nuclear autocorrelation function with an earlier model which employs a distribution of reaction times f(T). For the example of U+U collisions, results of coupled-channel calculations for positron creation and K-hole excitations are discussed for two schematic reaction models.

- Dirac particles in Rindler space (1980)
- We show that a uniformly accelerated observer experiences a "thermal" flux of Dirac particles in the ordinary Minkowski vacuum.

- Direct formation of quasimolecular 1s sigma vacancies in uranium-uranium collisions (1976)
- The direct (Coulomb) formation of electron vacancies in the 1sσ state of superheavy quasimolecules is investigated for the first time. Its dependence on the impact parameter, projectile energy, and its contribution from excitations into the continum and higher bound states are determined.

- Electron-translation effects in heavy-ion scattering (1981)
- The origin and importance of electron-translation effects within a molecular description of electronic excitations in heavy-ion collisions is investigated. First, a fully consistent quantum-mechanical description of the scattering process is developed; the electrons are described by relativistic molecular orbitals, while the nuclear motion is approximated nonrelativistically. Leaving the quantum-mechanical level by using the semiclassical approximation for the nuclear motion, a set of coupled differential equations for the occupation amplitudes of the molecular orbitals is derived. In these coupled-channel equations the spurious asymptotic dynamical couplings are corrected for by additional matrix elements stemming from the electron translation. Hence, a molecular description of electronic excitations in heavy-ion scattering has been achieved, which is free from the spurious asymptotic couplings of the conventional perturbated stationary-state approach. The importance of electron-translation effects for continuum electrons and positrons is investigated. To this end an algorithm for the description of continuum electrons is proposed, which for the first time should allow for the calculation of angular distributions for δ electrons. Finally, the practical consequences of electron-translation effects are studied by calculating the corrected coupling matrix elements for the Pb-Cm system and comparing the corresponding K-vacancy probabilities with conventional calculations. We critically discuss conventional methods for cutting off the coupling matrix elements in coupled-channel calculations.

- Electrons in superheavy quasimolecules (1979)
- Binding energies and wave functions of inner-shell electronic states in superheavy quasimolecules with (Zp+Zt)α>1 are calculated. Ionization during a collision of very heavy ions is investigated within a molecular basis generated by the solutions of the two-center Dirac equation. Transitions to vacant bound states as well as direct excitation to the continuum are taken into account. We present theoretical values for the ionization probability as a function of impact parameter, bombarding energy, and combined nuclear charge. Our computed results are compared with recent experimental data. It is suggested that relativistic binding energies of electrons in superheavy quasimolecules can be determined experimentally via the impact-parameter dependence of ionization and the anisotropy of quasimolecular radiation.

- Induced decay of the neutral vaccum in overcritical fields occurring in heavy-ion collisions (1974)
- In critical or nearly critical heavy-ion collisions, induced as well as spontaneous energyless e-e+ pair creation result in the decay of the neutral vacuum. Induced transitions from the negative-energy continuum into a vacant molecular 1s level can occur even in the absence of diving and produce a substantial enhancement and broadening of the previously considered spontaneous positron spectrum. Total cross sections of 5 b have been calculated for U-U collisions.

- Magnetic neutrino scattering by crystals (1990)
- The magnetic dipole scattering of neutrinos by the electrostatic potentials of single atoms as well as crystals is investigated. It is shown that scattering by a rigid cubic lattice can amplify the neutrino-atom cross section by a factor of N1/3, N being the number of scatterers. However, comparing the results with typical weak-interaction cross sections, the effect seems to be not observable in experiment.

- Nuclear polarization contribution to the Lamb shift in heavy atoms (1989)
- The energy shift of the 1s1/2 state in 92238U due to virtual excitation of nuclear rotational modes is shown to be a considerable correction for atomic high-precision experiments. In contrast to this, nuclear polarization effects are of minor importance for Lamb-shift studies in 82208Pb.