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- Theory of positron production in heavy-ion collisions (1981)
- Collisions of very heavy ions at energies close to the Coulomb barrier are discussed as a unique tool to study the behavior of the electron-positron field in the presence of strong external electromagnetic fields. To calculate the excitation processes induced by the collision dynamics, a semiclassical model is employed and adapted to describe the field-theoretical many-particle system. An expansion in the adiabatic molecular basis is chosen. Energies and matrix elements are calculated using the monopole approximation. In a supercritical (Z1+Z2≳173) quasiatomic system the 1s level joins the antiparticle continuum and becomes a resonance, rendering the neutral vacuum state unstable. Several methods of treating the corresponding time-dependent problem are discussed. A projection-operator technique is introduced for a fully dynamical treatment of the resonance. Positron excitation rates in s1/2 and p1/2 states are obtained by numerical solution of the coupled-channel equations and are compared with results from first- plus second-order perturbation theory. Calculations are performed for subcritical and supercritical collisions of Pb-Pb, Pb-U, U-U, and U-Cf. Strong relativistic deformations of the wave functions and the growing contributions from inner-shell bound states lead to a very steep Z dependence of positron production. The results are compared with available data from experiments done at GSI. Correlations between electrons and positrons are briefly discussed.

- Theory of induced molecular-orbital K X Rays in heavy-ion collisions (1974)
- The mechanisms of spontaneous and induced emission of radiation are derived from the Dirac equation in a rotating coordinate system. The molecular-orbital x-ray spectra exhibit a strong asymmetry with respect to the beam axis. The asymmetry peaks for the high-energy transitions, which can be used for spectroscopy of two-center orbitals.

- Stability of massive objects in a new scalar-tensor theory (1981)
- We define a new scalar-tensor theory with an effective gravitational coupling constant depending on a scalar field. The coupling is such that the gravitational interaction decreases with the strength of the scalar field. We show that this is not sufficient to prevent the gravitational collapse of sufficiently massive dense objects.

- Spectroscopy of electronic states in superheavy quasimolecules (1978)
- We show that information about quasimolecular electronic binding energies in transient atomic systems of Z=Z1+Z2 up to 184 can be obtained from three sources: (1) the impact-parameter dependence of the ionization probability; (2) the ionization probability in head-on collisions as a function of total nuclear charge Z; (3) the delta-electron spectrum in coincidence with K-vacancy formation in asymmetric collisions. Experiments are proposed and discussed.

- Solution of the Dirac equation for strong external fields (1972)
- The 1s bound state of superheavy atoms and molecules reaches a binding energy of -2mc2 at Z≈169. It is shown that the K shell is still localized in r space even beyond this critical proton number and that it has a width Γ (several keV large) which is a positron escape width for ionized K shells. The suggestion is made that this effect can be observed in the collision of very heavy ions (superheavy molecules) during the collision.

- Shakeoff of the vacuum polarization in quasimolecular collisions of very heavy ions (1977)
- The theory of direct electron-positron pair production in the collision of heavy ions is formulated in the framework of the quasimolecular model. The pair production process acquires a collective nature for (Z1+Z2)α>1 and can be understood as the shakeoff of the strong vacuum polarization cloud formed in the quasimolecule. The total cross section is, e.g., 76 μb for Pb + Pb at Coulomb barrier energies.

- Self-energy of electrons in critical fields (1982)
- The energy shift of K electrons in heavy atoms due to the self-energy correction has been calculated. This process is treated to all orders in Zα, where Z denotes the nuclear charge. For the superheavy system Z=170, where the K-shell binding energy reaches the pair-production threshold (E1sb∼2mc2), a shift of +11.0 keV is found. This shift is almost cancelled by the vacuum polarization, leaving a negligible effect for all quantum-electrodynamical corrections of order α but all orders of Zα.

- Phase transitions in nuclear matter (1980)
- Phase transitions in nuclear matter A method for the description of spin-isospin phase transitions in nuclear matter is developed. It allows a complete description of the pion condensation phase transition in the framework of the Landau-Migdal Fermi liquid theory. The equation of the order parameter is derived and the condensation energy is calculated. We study the influence of pion condensation on the nuclear equation of state and the temperature dependence of pion condensation. NUCLEAR STRUCTURE Description of pion-condensed ground state by Green's function technique.

- Nuclear polarization in heavy atoms and superheavy quasiatoms (1991)
- We consider the contribution of nuclear polarization to the Lamb shift of K- and L-shell electrons in heavy atoms and quasiatoms. Our formal approach is based on the concept of effective photon propagators with nuclear-polarization insertions treating effects of nuclear polarization on the same footing as usual QED radiative corrections. We explicitly derive the modification of the photon propagator for various collective nuclear excitations and calculate the corresponding effective self-energy shift perturbatively. The energy shift of the 1s1/2 state in 92238U due to virtual excitation of nuclear rotational states is shown to be a considerable correction for atomic high-precision experiments. In contrast to this, nuclear-polarization effects are of minor importance for Lamb-shift studies in 82208Pb.

- Nuclear polarization contribution to the Lamb shift in heavy atoms (1989)
- The energy shift of the 1s1/2 state in 92238U due to virtual excitation of nuclear rotational modes is shown to be a considerable correction for atomic high-precision experiments. In contrast to this, nuclear polarization effects are of minor importance for Lamb-shift studies in 82208Pb.