- Metabolite profiling of Alzheimer's disease cerebrospinal fluid (2012)
- Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive loss of cognitive functions. Today the diagnosis of AD relies on clinical evaluations and is only late in the disease. Biomarkers for early detection of the underlying neuropathological changes are still lacking and the biochemical pathways leading to the disease are still not completely understood. The aim of this study was to identify the metabolic changes resulting from the disease phenotype by a thorough and systematic metabolite profiling approach. For this purpose CSF samples from 79 AD patients and 51 healthy controls were analyzed by gas and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS and LC-MS/MS) in conjunction with univariate and multivariate statistical analyses. In total 343 different analytes have been identified. Significant changes in the metabolite profile of AD patients compared to healthy controls have been identified. Increased cortisol levels seemed to be related to the progression of AD and have been detected in more severe forms of AD. Increased cysteine associated with decreased uridine was the best paired combination to identify light AD (MMSE>22) with specificity and sensitivity above 75%. In this group of patients, sensitivity and specificity above 80% were obtained for several combinations of three to five metabolites, including cortisol and various amino acids, in addition to cysteine and uridine.
- Reduced antioxidant enzyme activity in brains of mice transgenic for human presenilin-1 with single or multiple mutations (2000)
- Alzheimer's disease-related mutations in the presenilin-1 gene (PS1) are leading to an elevated production of neurotoxic beta-amyloid 1-42 and may additionally enhance oxidative stress. Here, we provide in vivo evidence indicating that brains of transgenic mice expressing different human Alzheimer-linked PS1 mutations exhibit a reduced activity of two antioxidant enzymes. For this purpose, mice transgenic for human PS1 and for single and multiple PS1 mutations were generated. Mice with multiple PS1 mutations showed a significantly decreased activity of the antioxidant enzymes Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase already at an age of 3-4 months. As expected, this effect was less pronounced for the mice with a single PS1 mutation. By contrast, animals bearing normal human PS1 showed significantly elevated enzyme activities relative to non-transgenic littermate controls.
- Alzheimer's disease-like alterations in peripheral cells from presenilin-1 transgenic mice (2001)
- Many cases of early-onset inherited Alzheimer's disease (AD) are caused by mutations in the presenilin-1 (PS1) gene. Expression of PS1 mutations in cell culture systems and in primary neurons from transgenic mice increases their vulnerability to cell death. Interestingly, enhanced vulnerability to cell death has also been demonstrated for peripheral lymphocytes from AD patients. We now report that lymphocytes from PS1 mutant transgenic mice show a similar hypersensitivity to cell death as do peripheral cells from AD patients and several cell culture systems expressing PS1 mutations. The cell death-enhancing action of mutant PS1 was associated with increased production of reactive oxygen species and altered calcium regulation, but not with changes of mitochondrial cytochrome c. Our study further emphasizes the pathogenic role of mutant PS1 and may provide the fundamental basis for new efforts to close the gap between studies using neuronal cell lines transfected with mutant PS1, neurons from transgenic animals, and peripheral cells from AD patients. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.
- Impact of aging : sporadic, and genetic risk factors on vulnerability to apoptosis in Alzheimer's disease (2003)
- The identification of specific genetic (presenilin-1 [PS1] and amyloid precursor protein [APP] mutations) and environmental factors responsible for Alzheimer's disease (AD) has revealed evidence for a shared pathway of neuronal death. Moreover, AD-specific cell defects may be observed in many other nonneuronal cells (e.g., lymphocytes). Thus, lymphocytes may serve as a cellular system in which to study risk factors of sporadic, as well as genetic AD in vivo. The aim of our present study was to clarify whether lymphocytes bearing genetic or sporadic risk factors of AD share an increased susceptibility to cell death. Additionally we examined whether a cell typespecific vulnerability pattern was present and how normal aging, the main risk factor of sporadic AD, contributes to changes in susceptibility to cell death. Here, we report that lymphocytes affected by sporadic or genetic APP and PS1 AD risk factors share an increased vulnerability to cell death and exhibit a similar cell type-specific pattern, given that enhanced vulnerability was most strongly developed in the CD4+ T-cell subtype. In this paradigm, sporadic risk factors revealed the highest impact on cell type-specific sensitivity of CD4+ T cells to apoptosis. In contrast, normal aging results in an increased susceptibility to apoptosis of both, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells.