- Article (12) (remove)
- Secular change of extreme monthly precipitation in Europe (2003)
- Temporal changes in the occurrence of extreme events in time series of observed precipitation are investigated. The analysis is based on a European gridded data set and a German station-based data set of recent monthly totals (1896=1899–1995=1998). Two approaches are used. First, values above certain defined thresholds are counted for the first and second halves of the observation period. In the second step time series components, such as trends, are removed to obtain a deeper insight into the causes of the observed changes. As an example, this technique is applied to the time series of the German station Eppenrod. It arises that most of the events concern extreme wet months whose frequency has significantly increased in winter. Whereas on the European scale the other seasons also show this increase, especially in autumn, in Germany an insignificant decrease in the summer and autumn seasons is found. Moreover it is demonstrated that the increase of extreme wet months is reflected in a systematic increase in the variance and the Weibull probability density function parameters, respectively.
- Die Klimadebatte : Zwischen Katastrophe und Verharmlosung (1997)
- Die öffentliche Klimadebatte scheint sich zu verselbständigen. Abgehoben von den Erkenntnissen der Fachwissenschaftler reden die einen von der "Klimakatastrophe", die uns demnächst mit voller Wucht treffen wird, wenn wir nicht sofort alles ganz anders machen; Panik ist ihnen das rechte Mittel, Aufmerksamkeit zu erregen. Die anderen sehen im "Klimaschwindel" einen Vorwand für Forschungsgelder und zusätzliche Steuerbelastung der Wirtschaft; ihre Strategie ist Verwirrung und Verharmlosung. Mit der Fixierung auf solche Extrempositionen werden wir den Herausforderungen der Zukunft sicherlich nicht gerecht. Höchste Zeit für eine Versachlichung und für einen klärenden Beitrag zum Verwirrspiel "Klima".
- Grad-Wanderung im Treibhaus (2001)
- Die Zunahme der Konzentration von CO2 und anderen „Treibhausgasen“ in der Atmosphäre ist unzweifelhaft, und ebenso unzweifelhaft reagiert das Klima darauf. Christian-Dietrich Schönwiese, Professor für Meteorologische Umweltforschung und Klimatologie an der Universität Frankfurt am Main, sieht dringenden politischen Handlungsbedarf und plädiert gleichzeitig dafür, die Debatte rund um den Klimaschutz zu versachlichen.
- Attribution and detection of anthropogenic climate change using a backpropagation neural network (2002)
- Simulation of global temperature variations and signal detection studies using neural networks (1998)
- The concept of neural network models (NNM) is a statistical strategy which can be used if a superposition of any forcing mechanisms leads to any effects and if a sufficient related observational data base is available. In comparison to multiple regression analysis (MRA), the main advantages are that NNM is an appropriate tool also in the case of non-linear cause-effect relations and that interactions of the forcing mechanisms are allowed. In comparison to more sophisticated methods like general circulation models (GCM), the main advantage is that details of the physical background like feedbacks can be unknown. Neural networks learn from observations which reflect feedbacks implicitly. The disadvantage, of course, is that the physical background is neglected. In addition, the results prove to be sensitively dependent from the network architecture like the number of hidden neurons or the initialisation of learning parameters. We used a supervised backpropagation network (BPN) with three neuron layers, an unsupervised Kohonen network (KHN) and a combination of both called counterpropagation network (CPN). These concepts are tested in respect to their ability to simulate the observed global as well as hemispheric mean surface air temperature annual variations 1874 - 1993 if parameter time series of the following forcing mechanisms are incorporated : equivalent CO2 concentrations, tropospheric sulfate aerosol concentrations (both anthropogenic), volcanism, solar activity, and ENSO (all natural). It arises that in this way up to 83% of the observed temperature variance can be explained, significantly more than by MRA. The implication of the North Atlantic Oscillation does not improve these results. On a global average, the greenhouse gas (GHG) signal so far is assessed to be 0.9 - 1.3 K (warming), the sulfate signal 0.2 - 0.4 K (cooling), results which are in close similarity to the GCM findings published in the recent IPCC Report. The related signals of the natural forcing mechanisms considered cover amplitudes of 0.1 - 0.3 K. Our best NNM estimate of the GHG doubling signal amounts to 2.1K, equilibrium, or 1.7 K, transient, respectively.
- Statistical separation of observed global and European climate data into natural and anthropogenic signals (2003)
- Observed global and European spatiotemporal related fields of surface air temperature, mean-sea-level pressure and precipitation are analyzed statistically with respect to their response to external forcing factors such as anthropogenic greenhouse gases, anthropogenic sulfate aerosol, solar variations and explosive volcanism, and known internal climate mechanisms such as the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). As a first step, a principal component analysis (PCA) is applied to the observed spatiotemporal related fields to obtain spatial patterns with linear independent temporal structure. In a second step, the time series of each of the spatial patterns is subject to a stepwise regression analysis in order to separate it into signals of the external forcing factors and internal climate mechanisms as listed above as well as the residuals. Finally a back-transformation leads to the spatiotemporally related patterns of all these signals being intercompared. Two kinds of significance tests are applied to the anthropogenic signals. First, it is tested whether the anthropogenic signal is significant compared with the complete residual variance including natural variability. This test answers the question whether a significant anthropogenic climate change is visible in the observed data. As a second test the anthropogenic signal is tested with respect to the climate noise component only. This test answers the question whether the anthropogenic signal is significant among others in the observed data. Using both tests, regions can be specified where the anthropogenic influence is visible (second test) and regions where the anthropogenic influence has already significantly changed climate (first test).