Year of publication
- Die Klimadebatte : zwischen Katastrophe und Verharmlosung (1997)
- Die öffentliche Klimadebatte scheint sich zu verselbständigen. Abgehoben von den Erkenntnissen der Fachwissenschaftler reden die einen von der "Klimakatastrophe", die uns demnächst mit voller Wucht treffen wird, wenn wir nicht sofort alles ganz anders machen; Panik ist ihnen das rechte Mittel, Aufmerksamkeit zu erregen. Die anderen sehen im "Klimaschwindel" einen Vorwand für Forschungsgelder und zusätzliche Steuerbelastung der Wirtschaft; ihre Strategie ist Verwirrung und Verharmlosung. Mit der Fixierung auf solche Extrempositionen werden wir den Herausforderungen der Zukunft sicherlich nicht gerecht. Höchste Zeit für eine Versachlichung und für einen klärenden Beitrag zum Verwirrspiel "Klima".
- Simulation of global temperature variations and signal detection studies using neural networks (1998)
- The concept of neural network models (NNM) is a statistical strategy which can be used if a superposition of any forcing mechanisms leads to any effects and if a sufficient related observational data base is available. In comparison to multiple regression analysis (MRA), the main advantages are that NNM is an appropriate tool also in the case of non-linear cause-effect relations and that interactions of the forcing mechanisms are allowed. In comparison to more sophisticated methods like general circulation models (GCM), the main advantage is that details of the physical background like feedbacks can be unknown. Neural networks learn from observations which reflect feedbacks implicitly. The disadvantage, of course, is that the physical background is neglected. In addition, the results prove to be sensitively dependent from the network architecture like the number of hidden neurons or the initialisation of learning parameters. We used a supervised backpropagation network (BPN) with three neuron layers, an unsupervised Kohonen network (KHN) and a combination of both called counterpropagation network (CPN). These concepts are tested in respect to their ability to simulate the observed global as well as hemispheric mean surface air temperature annual variations 1874 - 1993 if parameter time series of the following forcing mechanisms are incorporated : equivalent CO2 concentrations, tropospheric sulfate aerosol concentrations (both anthropogenic), volcanism, solar activity, and ENSO (all natural). It arises that in this way up to 83% of the observed temperature variance can be explained, significantly more than by MRA. The implication of the North Atlantic Oscillation does not improve these results. On a global average, the greenhouse gas (GHG) signal so far is assessed to be 0.9 - 1.3 K (warming), the sulfate signal 0.2 - 0.4 K (cooling), results which are in close similarity to the GCM findings published in the recent IPCC Report. The related signals of the natural forcing mechanisms considered cover amplitudes of 0.1 - 0.3 K. Our best NNM estimate of the GHG doubling signal amounts to 2.1K, equilibrium, or 1.7 K, transient, respectively.
- Statistische Analysen zur Früherkennung globaler und regionaler Klimaänderungen aufgrund des anthropogenen Treibhauseffektes (2000)
- Statistical analyses for the purpose of an early detection of global and regional climate change due to the anthropogenic greenhouse effect (2000)
- The assumption that mankind is able to have an in uence on global or regional climate, respectively, due to the emission of greenhouse gases, is often discussed. This assumption is both very important and very obscure. In consequence, it is necessary to clarify definitively which meteorological elements (climate parameters) are in uencend by the anthropogenic climate impact, and to which extent in which regions of the world. In addition, to be able to interprete such an information properly, it is also necessary to know the magnitude of the different climate signals due to natural variability (for example due to volcanic or solar activity) and the magnitide of stochastic climate noise. The usual tool of climatologists, general circulation models (GCM) suffer from the problem that they are at least quantitatively uncertain with regard to the regional patterns of the behaviour of climate elements and from the lack of accurate information about long-term (decadal and centennial) forcing. In contrast to that, statistical methods as used in this study have the advantage to test hypotheses directly based on observational data. So, we focus to the very reality of climate variability as it has occurred in the past. We apply two strategies of time series analyis with regard to the observed climate variables under consideration. First, each time series is splitted into its variation components. This procedure is called 'structure-oriented time series separation'. The second strategy called 'cause-oriented time series separation' matches various time series representing various forcing mechanisms with those representing the climate behaviour (climate elements). In this way it can be assessed which part of observed climate variability can be explained by this (combined) forcing and which part remains unexplained.
- The human impact on climate : new evidence from observations (2001)
- This is a short movie about the research project No. 297 41 132 of the German Federal Environmental Agency. It is comissioned by the German Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety and the German Federal Environmental Agency, Division II 6.2.
- Grad-Wanderungen im Treibhaus : für eine Versachlichung der Klimadebatte (2001)
- Die Zunahme der Konzentration von CO2 und anderen „Treibhausgasen“ in der Atmosphäre ist unzweifelhaft, und ebenso unzweifelhaft reagiert das Klima darauf. Christian-Dietrich Schönwiese, Professor für Meteorologische Umweltforschung und Klimatologie an der Universität Frankfurt am Main, sieht dringenden politischen Handlungsbedarf und plädiert gleichzeitig dafür, die Debatte rund um den Klimaschutz zu versachlichen.