- EEG processing with TESPAR for depth of anesthesia detection (2009)
- Poster presentation: Introduction Adequate anesthesia is crucial to the success of surgical interventions and subsequent recovery. Neuroscientists, surgeons, and engineers have sought to understand the impact of anesthetics on the information processing in the brain and to properly assess the level of anesthesia in an non-invasive manner. Studies have indicated a more reliable depth of anesthesia (DOA) detection if multiple parameters are employed. Indeed, commercial DOA monitors (BIS, Narcotrend, M-Entropy and A-line ARX) use more than one feature extraction method. Here, we propose TESPAR (Time Encoded Signal Processing And Recognition) a time domain signal processing technique novel to EEG DOA assessment that could enhance existing monitoring devices. ...
- A comparison of spike time prediction and receptive field mapping with point process generalized linear models, Wiener-Voltera kernels, and spike-triggered averaging methods (2009)
- Poster presentation: Characterizing neuronal encoding is essential for understanding information processing in the brain. Three methods are commonly used to characterize the relationship between neural spiking activity and the features of putative stimuli. These methods include: Wiener-Volterra kernel methods (WVK), the spike-triggered average (STA), and more recently, the point process generalized linear model (GLM). We compared the performance of these three approaches in estimating receptive field properties and orientation tuning of 251 V1 neurons recorded from 2 monkeys during a fixation period in response to a moving bar. The GLM consisted of two formulations of the conditional intensity function for a point process characterization of the spiking activity: one with a stimulus only component and one with the stimulus and spike history. We fit the GLMs by maximum likelihood using GLMfit in Matlab. Goodness-of-fit was assessed using cross-validation with Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) tests based on the time-rescaling theorem to evaluate the accuracy with which each model predicts the spiking activity of individual neurons and for each movement direction (4016 models in total, for 251 neurons and 16 different directions). The GLMs that considered spike history of up to 35 ms, accurately predicted neuronal spiking activity (95% confidence intervals for KS test) with a performance of 97.0% (3895/4016) for the training data, and 96.5% (3876/4016) for the test data. If spike history was not considered, performance dropped to 73,1% in the training and 71.3% in the testing data. In contrast, the WVF and the STA predicted spiking accurately for 24.2% and 44.5% of the test data examples respectively. The receptive field size estimates obtained from the GLM (with and without history), WVF and STA were comparable. Relative to the GLM orientation tuning was underestimated on average by a factor of 0.45 by the WVF and the STA. The main reason for using the STA and WVF approaches is their apparent simplicity. However, our analyses suggest that more accurate spike prediction as well as more credible estimates of receptive field size and orientation tuning can be computed easily using GLMs implemented in Matlab with standard functions such as GLMfit.
- Auto-structure of spike trains matters for testing on synchronous activity (2009)
- Poster presentation: Coordinated neuronal activity across many neurons, i.e. synchronous or spatiotemporal pattern, had been believed to be a major component of neuronal activity. However, the discussion if coordinated activity really exists remained heated and controversial. A major uncertainty was that many analysis approaches either ignored the auto-structure of the spiking activity, assumed a very simplified model (poissonian firing), or changed the auto-structure by spike jittering. We studied whether a statistical inference that tests whether coordinated activity is occurring beyond chance can be made false if one ignores or changes the real auto-structure of recorded data. To this end, we investigated the distribution of coincident spikes in mutually independent spike-trains modeled as renewal processes. We considered Gamma processes with different shape parameters as well as renewal processes in which the ISI distribution is log-normal. For Gamma processes of integer order, we calculated the mean number of coincident spikes, as well as the Fano factor of the coincidences, analytically. We determined how these measures depend on the bin width and also investigated how they depend on the firing rate, and on rate difference between the neurons. We used Monte-Carlo simulations to estimate the whole distribution for these parameters and also for other values of gamma. Moreover, we considered the effect of dithering for both of these processes and saw that while dithering does not change the average number of coincidences, it does change the shape of the coincidence distribution. Our major findings are: 1) the width of the coincidence count distribution depends very critically and in a non-trivial way on the detailed properties of the inter-spike interval distribution, 2) the dependencies of the Fano factor on the coefficient of variation of the ISI distribution are complex and mostly non-monotonic. Moreover, the Fano factor depends on the very detailed properties of the individual point processes, and cannot be predicted by the CV alone. Hence, given a recorded data set, the estimated value of CV of the ISI distribution is not sufficient to predict the Fano factor of the coincidence count distribution, and 3) spike jittering, even if it is as small as a fraction of the expected ISI, can falsify the inference on coordinated firing. In most of the tested cases and especially for complex synchronous and spatiotemporal pattern across many neurons, spike jittering increased the likelihood of false positive finding very strongly. Last, we discuss a procedure  that considers the complete auto-structure of each individual spike-train for testing whether synchrony firing occurs at chance and therefore overcomes the danger of an increased level of false positives.
- Detection of task-related synchronous firing patterns (2009)
- Poster presentation: Background To test the importance of synchronous neuronal firing for information processing in the brain, one has to investigate if synchronous firing strength is correlated to the experimental subjects. This requires a tool that can compare the strength of the synchronous firing across different conditions, while at the same time it should correct for other features of neuronal firing such as spike rate modulation or the auto-structure of the spike trains that might co-occur with synchronous firing. Here we present the bi- and multivariate extension of previously developed method NeuroXidence [1,2], which allows for comparing the amount of synchronous firing between different conditions. ...
- Bivariate and Multivariate NeuroXidence: A Robust and Reliable Method to Detect Modulations of Spike–Spike Synchronization Across Experimental Conditions (2011)
- Synchronous neuronal firing has been proposed as a potential neuronal code. To determine whether synchronous firing is really involved in different forms of information processing, one needs to directly compare the amount of synchronous firing due to various factors, such as different experimental or behavioral conditions. In order to address this issue, we present an extended version of the previously published method, NeuroXidence. The improved method incorporates bi- and multivariate testing to determine whether different factors result in synchronous firing occurring above the chance level. We demonstrate through the use of simulated data sets that bi- and multivariate NeuroXidence reliably and robustly detects joint-spike-events across different factors.
- Performance- and stimulus-dependent oscillations in monkey prefrontal cortex during short-term memory (2009)
- Short-term memory requires the coordination of sub-processes like encoding, retention, retrieval and comparison of stored material to subsequent input. Neuronal oscillations have an inherent time structure, can effectively coordinate synaptic integration of large neuron populations and could therefore organize and integrate distributed sub-processes in time and space. We observed field potential oscillations (14–95 Hz) in ventral prefrontal cortex of monkeys performing a visual memory task. Stimulus-selective and performance-dependent oscillations occurred simultaneously at 65–95 Hz and 14–50 Hz, the latter being phase-locked throughout memory maintenance. We propose that prefrontal oscillatory activity may be instrumental for the dynamical integration of local and global neuronal processes underlying short-term memory.
- How specific is synchronous neuronal firing? : Poster presentation (2007)
- Background Synchronous neuronal firing has been discussed as a potential neuronal code. For testing first, if synchronous firing exists, second if it is modulated by the behaviour, and third if it is not by chance, a large set of tools has been developed. However, to test whether synchronous neuronal firing is really involved in information processing one needs a direct comparison of the amount of synchronous firing for different factors like experimental or behavioural conditions. To this end we present an extended version of a previously published method NeuroXidence , which tests, based on a bi- and multivariate test design, whether the amount of synchronous firing above the chance level is different for different factors.
- Zero-lag long-range synchronization of Hodgkin-Huxley neurons is enhanced by dynamical relaying : poster presentation (2007)
- Background The synchrony hypothesis postulates that precise temporal synchronization of different pools of neurons conveys information that is not contained in their firing rates. The synchrony hypothesis had been supported by experimental findings demonstrating that millisecond precise synchrony of neuronal oscillations across well separated brain regions plays an essential role in visual perception and other higher cognitive tasks . Albeit, more evidence is being accumulated in favour of its role as a binding mechanism of distributed neural responses, the physical and anatomical substrate for such a dynamic and precise synchrony, especially zero-lag even in the presence of non-negligible delays, remains unclear. Here we propose a simple network motif that naturally accounts for zero-lag synchronization for a wide range of temporal delays . We demonstrate that zero-lag synchronization between two distant neurons or neural populations can be achieved by relaying the dynamics via a third mediating single neuron or population. Methods We simulated the dynamics of two Hodgkin-Huxley neurons that interact with each other via an intermediate third neuron. The synaptic coupling was mediated through alpha-functions. Individual temporal delays of the arrival of pre-synaptic potentials were modelled by a gamma distribution. The strength of the synchronization and the phase-difference between each individual pairs were derived by cross-correlation of the membrane potentials. Results In the regular spiking regime the two outer neurons consistently synchronize with zero phase lag irrespective of the initial conditions. This robust zero-lag synchronization naturally arises as a consequence of the relay and redistribution of the dynamics performed by the central neuron. This result is independent on whether the coupling is excitatory or inhibitory and can be maintained for arbitrarily long time delays (see Fig. 1). Conclusion We have presented a simple and extremely robust network motif able to account for the isochronous synchronization of distant neural elements in a natural way. As opposed to other possible mechanisms of neural synchronization, neither inhibitory coupling, gap junctions nor precise tuning of morphological parameters are required to obtain zero-lag synchronized neuronal oscillation.
- A mechanism for achieving zero-lag long-range synchronization of neural activity (2009)
- Poster presentation: How can two distant neural assemblies synchronize their firings at zero-lag even in the presence of non-negligible delays in the transfer of information between them? Neural synchronization stands today as one of the most promising mechanisms to counterbalance the huge anatomical and functional specialization of the different brain areas. However, and albeit more evidence is being accumulated in favor of its functional role as a binding mechanism of distributed neural responses, the physical and anatomical substrate for such a dynamic and precise synchrony, especially zero-lag even in the presence of non-negligible delays, remains unclear. Here we propose a simple network motif that naturally accounts for zero-lag synchronization of spiking assemblies of neurons for a wide range of temporal delays. We demonstrate that when two distant neural assemblies do not interact directly but relaying their dynamics via a third mediating single neuron or population and eventually achieve zero-lag coherent firing. Extensive numerical simulations of populations of Hodgkin-Huxley neurons interacting in such a network are analyzed. The results show that even with axonal delays as large as 15 ms the distant neural populations can synchronize their firings at zero-lag in a millisecond precision after the exchange of a few spikes. The role of noise and a distribution of axonal delays in the synchronized dynamics of the neural populations are also studied confirming the robustness of this sync mechanism. The proposed network module is densely embedded within the complex functional architecture of the brain and especially within the reciprocal thalamocortical interactions where the role of indirect pathways mimicking direct cortico-cortical fibers has been already suggested to facilitate trans-areal cortical communication. In summary the robust neural synchronization mechanism presented here arises as a consequence of the relay and redistribution of the dynamics performed by a mediating neuronal population. In opposition to previous works, neither inhibitory, gap junctions, nor complex networks need to be invoked to provide a stable mechanism of zero-phase correlated activity of neural populations in the presence of large conduction delays.