- Medizin (11) (remove)
- Human immunodeficiency virus: 25 years of diagnostic and therapeutic strategies and their impact on hepatitis B and C virus (2009)
- The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) had spread unrecognized in the human population as sexually transmitted disease and was finally identified by its disease AIDS in 1981. Even after the isolation of the causative agent in 1983, the burden and death rate of AIDS accelerated worldwide especially in young people despite the confection of new drugs capable to inhibit virus replication since 1997. However, at least in industrialised countries, this trend could be reversed by the introduction of combination therapy strategies. The design of new drugs is on going; besides the inhibition of the three enzymes of HIV for replication and maturation (reverse transcriptase, integrase and protease), further drugs inhibits fusion of viral and cellular membranes and virus maturation. On the other hand, viral diagnostics had been considerably improved since the emergence of HIV. There was a need to identify infected people correctly, to follow up the course of immune reconstitution of patients by measuring viral load and CD4 cells, and to analyse drug escape mutations leading to drug resistance. Both the development of drugs and the refined diagnostics have been transferred to the treatment of patients infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV). This progress is not completed; there are beneficial aspects in the response of the scientific community to the HIV burden for the management of other viral diseases. These aspects are described in this contribution. Further aspects as handling a stigmatising disease, education of self-responsiveness within sexual relationships, and ways for confection of a protective vaccine are not covered.
- Inhibition of apoptosis prevents West Nile virus induced cell death (2007)
- Background: West Nile virus (WNV) infection can cause severe meningitis and encephalitis in humans. Apoptosis was recently shown to contribute to the pathogenesis of WNV encephalitis. Here, we used WNV-infected glioma cells to study WNV-replication and WNV-induced apoptosis in human brain-derived cells. Results: T98G cells are highly permissive for lytic WNV-infection as demonstrated by the production of infectious virus titre and the development of a characteristic cytopathic effect. WNV replication decreased cell viability and induced apoptosis as indicated by the activation of the effector caspase-3, the initiator caspases-8 and -9, poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP) cleavage and the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria. Truncation of BID indicated cross-talk between the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways. Inhibition of the caspases-8 or -9 inhibited PARP cleavage, demonstrating that both caspases are involved in WNV-induced apoptosis. Pancaspase inhibition prevented WNV-induced apoptosis without affecting virus replication. Conclusions: We found that WNV infection induces cell death in the brain-derived tumour cell line T98G by apoptosis under involvement of constituents of the extrinsic as well as the intrinsic apoptotic pathways. Our results illuminate the molecular mechanism of WNV-induced neural cell death.
- Weltweiter SARS-Alarm : eine neue Seuche auf dem Vormarsch? (2004)
- Mitte März 2003 löste die WHO einen weltweiten Alarm aus, nachdem sich eine neuartige, schwere und unter bestimmten Umständen hochansteckende Atemwegserkrankung scheinbar unaufhaltsam über weite Teile der Welt auszubreiten schien. Am 15. März desselben Jahres landeten die ersten Patienten mit Verdacht auf Schweres Akutes Respiratorisches Syndrom (SARS) in Frankfurt und wurden auf die Isolierstation des Universitätsklinikums aufgenommen. Auslöser war ein zuvor nicht bekanntes Coronavirus, das heute als SARS-CoV bezeichnet wird. Derzeit laufen Untersuchungen zur Biologie und Epidemiologie des neuen Erregers, zu antiviralen Hemmstoffen sowie zu Desinfektions- und Inaktivierungsmöglichkeiten und neuen Therapieoptionen. Daneben wird analysiert, wie sich das öffentliche Gesundheitswesen auf eine mögliche Wiederkehr vorbereiten muss. SARS ist ein Beispiel dafür, wie schnell sich eine Infektionskrankheit in der modernen Welt international ausbreiten kann und wie wichtig in einem solchen Falle eine gut koordinierte internationale Kooperation ist. Frankfurter Forscher berichten.
- Chemoresistance induces enhanced adhesion and transendothelial penetration of neuroblastoma cells by down-regulating NCAM surface expression (2006)
- Background Drug resistance to chemotherapy is often associated with increased malignancy in neuroblastoma (NB). One explanation for the link between resistance and malignancy might be that resistance facilitates cancer progression and invasion. To investigate this hypothesis, adhesion, transendothelial penetration and NCAM (CD56) adhesion receptor expression of drug-resistant versus drug-sensitive NB tumor cells were evaluated. Methods Acquired drug resistance was mimicked by exposing parental UKF-NB-2, UKF-NB-3 or IMR-32 tumor cells to increasing concentrations of vincristine- (VCR) or doxorubicin (DOX) to establish the resistant tumor cell sublines UKF-NB-2VCR, UKF-NB-2DOX, UKF-NB-3VCR, UKF-NB-3DOX, IMR-32VCR and IMR-32DOX. Additionally, the malignant behaviour of UKF-NB-4, which already possessed the intrinsic multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype, was analyzed. UKF-NB-4 exposed to VCR or DOX were designated UKF-NB-4VCR or UKF-NB-4DOX. Combined phase contrast - reflection interference contrast microscopy was used to separately evaluate NB cell adhesion and penetration. NCAM was analyzed by flow cytometry, western blot and RT-PCR. Results VCR and DOX resistant tumor sublines showed enhanced adhesion and penetration capacity, compared to their drug naive controls. Strongest effects were seen with UKF-NB-2VCR, UKF-NB-3VCR and IMR-32DOX. DOX or VCR treatment also evoked increased invasive behaviour of UKF-NB-4. The process of accelerated tumor invasion was accompanied by decreased NCAM surface and protein expression, and down-regulation of NCAM coding mRNA. Transfection of UKF-NB-4VCR cells with NCAM cDNA led to a significant receptor up-regulation, paralleled by diminished adhesion to an endothelial cell monolayer. Conclusions It is concluded that NB cells resistant to anticancer drugs acquire increased invasive capacity relative to non-resistant parental cells, and that enhanced invasion is caused by strong down-regulation of NCAM adhesion receptors.
- Human monoclonal antibody combination against SARS coronavirus : synergy and coverage of escape mutants (2006)
- Background: Experimental animal data show that protection against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) infection with human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) is feasible. For an effective immune prophylaxis in humans, broad coverage of different strains of SARS-CoV and control of potential neutralization escape variants will be required. Combinations of virus-neutralizing, noncompeting mAbs may have these properties. Methods and Findings: Human mAb CR3014 has been shown to completely prevent lung pathology and abolish pharyngeal shedding of SARS-CoV in infected ferrets. We generated in vitro SARS-CoV variants escaping neutralization by CR3014, which all had a single P462L mutation in the glycoprotein spike (S) of the escape virus. In vitro experiments confirmed that binding of CR3014 to a recombinant S fragment (amino acid residues 318–510) harboring this mutation was abolished. We therefore screened an antibody-phage library derived from blood of a convalescent SARS patient for antibodies complementary to CR3014. A novel mAb, CR3022, was identified that neutralized CR3014 escape viruses, did not compete with CR3014 for binding to recombinant S1 fragments, and bound to S1 fragments derived from the civet cat SARS-CoV-like strain SZ3. No escape variants could be generated with CR3022. The mixture of both mAbs showed neutralization of SARS-CoV in a synergistic fashion by recognizing different epitopes on the receptor-binding domain. Dose reduction indices of 4.5 and 20.5 were observed for CR3014 and CR3022, respectively, at 100% neutralization. Because enhancement of SARS-CoV infection by subneutralizing antibody concentrations is of concern, we show here that anti-SARS-CoV antibodies do not convert the abortive infection of primary human macrophages by SARS-CoV into a productive one. Conclusions: The combination of two noncompeting human mAbs CR3014 and CR3022 potentially controls immune escape and extends the breadth of protection. At the same time, synergy between CR3014 and CR3022 may allow for a lower total antibody dose to be administered for passive immune prophylaxis of SARS-CoV infection.
- Chemoresistance acquisition induces a global shift of expression of aniogenesis-associated genes and increased pro-angogenic activity in neuroblastoma cells (2009)
- Background Chemoresistance acquisition may influence cancer cell biology. Here, bioinformatics analysis of gene expression data was used to identify chemoresistance-associated changes in neuroblastoma biology. Results Bioinformatics analysis of gene expression data revealed that expression of angiogenesis-associated genes significantly differs between chemosensitive and chemoresistant neuroblastoma cells. A subsequent systematic analysis of a panel of 14 chemosensitive and chemoresistant neuroblastoma cell lines in vitro and in animal experiments indicated a consistent shift to a more pro-angiogenic phenotype in chemoresistant neuroblastoma cells. The molecular mechanims underlying increased pro-angiogenic activity of neuroblastoma cells are individual and differ between the investigated chemoresistant cell lines. Treatment of animals carrying doxorubicin-resistant neuroblastoma xenografts with doxorubicin, a cytotoxic drug known to exert anti-angiogenic activity, resulted in decreased tumour vessel formation and growth indicating chemoresistance-associated enhanced pro-angiogenic activity to be relevant for tumour progression and to represent a potential therapeutic target. Conclusions A bioinformatics approach allowed to identify a relevant chemoresistance-associated shift in neuroblastoma cell biology. The chemoresistance-associated enhanced pro-angiogenic activity observed in neuroblastoma cells is relevant for tumour progression and represents a potential therapeutic target.
- Adaptation of cancer cells from different entities to the MDM2 inhibitor nutlin-3 results in the emergence of p53-mutated multi-drug-resistant cancer cells (2011)
- Six p53 wild-type cancer cell lines from infrequently p53-mutated entities (neuroblastoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, and melanoma) were continuously exposed to increasing concentrations of the murine double minute 2 inhibitor nutlin-3, resulting in the emergence of nutlin-3-resistant, p53-mutated sublines displaying a multi-drug resistance phenotype. Only 2 out of 28 sublines adapted to various cytotoxic drugs harboured p53 mutations. Nutlin-3-adapted UKF-NB-3 cells (UKF-NB-3rNutlin10 μM, harbouring a G245C mutation) were also radiation resistant. Analysis of UKF-NB-3 and UKF-NB-3rNutlin10 μM cells by RNA interference experiments and lentiviral transduction of wild-type p53 into p53-mutated UKF-NB-3rNutlin10 μM cells revealed that the loss of p53 function contributes to the multi-drug resistance of UKF-NB-3rNutlin10 μM cells. Bioinformatics PANTHER pathway analysis based on microarray measurements of mRNA abundance indicated a substantial overlap in the signalling pathways differentially regulated between UKF-NB-3rNutlin10 μM and UKF-NB-3 and between UKF-NB-3 and its cisplatin-, doxorubicin-, or vincristine-resistant sublines. Repeated nutlin-3 adaptation of neuroblastoma cells resulted in sublines harbouring various p53 mutations with high frequency. A p53 wild-type single cell-derived UKF-NB-3 clone was adapted to nutlin-3 in independent experiments. Eight out of ten resulting sublines were p53-mutated harbouring six different p53 mutations. This indicates that nutlin-3 induces de novo p53 mutations not initially present in the original cell population. Therefore, nutlin-3-treated cancer patients should be carefully monitored for the emergence of p53-mutated, multi-drug-resistant cells.
- Selection of a highly invasive neuroblastoma cell population through long-term human cytomegalovirus infection (2012)
- The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is suspected to increase tumour malignancy by infection of cancer and/or stroma cells (oncomodulation). So far, oncomodulatory mechanisms have been attributed to the presence of HCMV and direct action of its gene products on cancer cells. Here, we investigated whether the prolonged presence of HCMV can result in the irreversible selection of a cancer cell population with increased malignancy. The neuroblastoma cell line UKF-NB-4 was long-term (200 passages) infected with the HCMV strain Hi91 (UKF-NB-4Hi) before virus eradication using ganciclovir (UKF-NB-4HiGCV). Global gene expression profiling of UKF-NB-4, UKF-NB-4Hi and UKF-NB-4HiGCV cells and subsequent bioinformatic signal transduction pathway analysis revealed clear differences between UKF-NB-4 and UKF-NB-4Hi, as well as between UKF-NB-4 and UKF-NB-4HiGCV cells, but only minor differences between UKF-NB-4Hi and UKF-NB-4HiGCV cells. Investigation of the expression of a subset of five genes in different chronically HCMV-infected cell lines before and after virus eradication suggested that long-term HCMV infection reproducibly causes specific changes. Array comparative genomic hybridisation showed virtually the same genomic differences for the comparisons UKF-NB-4Hi/UKF-NB-4 and UKF-NB-4HiGCV/UKF-NB-4. UKF-NB-4Hi cells are characterised by an increased invasive potential compared with UKF-NB-4 cells. This phenotype was completely retained in UKF-NB-4HiGCV cells. Moreover, there was a substantial overlap in the signal transduction pathways that differed significantly between UKF-NB-4Hi/UKF-NB-4HiGCV and UKF-NB-4 cells and those differentially regulated between tumour tissues from neuroblastoma patients with favourable or poor outcome. In conclusion, we present the first experimental evidence that long-term HCMV infection can result in the selection of tumour cell populations with enhanced malignancy.
- Oncolytic effects of a novel Influenza A virus expressing Interleukin-15 from the NS reading frame (2012)
- Oncolytic influenza A viruses with deleted NS1 gene (delNS1) replicate selectively in tumour cells with defective interferon response and/or activated Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK signalling pathway. To develop a delNS1 virus with specific immunostimulatory properties, we used an optimised technology to insert the interleukin-15 (IL-15) coding sequence into the viral NS gene segment (delNS1-IL-15). DelNS1 and delNS1-IL-15 exerted similar oncolytic effects. Both viruses replicated and caused caspase-dependent apoptosis in interferon-defective melanoma cells. Virus replication was required for their oncolytic activity. Cisplatin enhanced the oncolytic activity of delNS1 viruses. The cytotoxic drug increased delNS1 replication and delNS1-induced caspase-dependent apoptosis. Interference with MEK/ERK signalling by RNAi-mediated depletion or the MEK inhibitor U0126 did not affect the oncolytic effects of the delNS1 viruses. In oncolysis sensitive melanoma cells, delNS1-IL-15 (but not delNS1) infection resulted in the production of IL-15 levels ranging from 70 to 1140 pg/mL in the cell culture supernatants. The supernatants of delNS1-IL-15-infected (but not of delNS1-infected) melanoma cells induced primary human natural killer cell-mediated lysis of non-infected tumour cells. In conclusion, we constructed a novel oncolytic influenza virus that combines the oncolytic activity of delNS1 viruses with immunostimulatory properties through production of functional IL-15. Moreover, we showed that the oncolytic activity of delNS1 viruses can be enhanced in combination with cytotoxic anti-cancer drugs.
- Human neuroblastoma cells with acquired resistance to the p53 activator RITA retain functional p53 and sensitivity to other p53 activating agents (2012)
- Adaptation of wild-type p53 expressing UKF-NB-3 cancer cells to the murine double minute 2 inhibitor nutlin-3 causes de novo p53 mutations at high frequency (13/20) and multi-drug resistance. Here, we show that the same cells respond very differently when adapted to RITA, a drug that, like nutlin-3, also disrupts the p53/Mdm2 interaction. All of the 11 UKF-NB-3 sub-lines adapted to RITA that we established retained functional wild-type p53 although RITA induced a substantial p53 response. Moreover, all RITA-adapted cell lines remained sensitive to nutlin-3, whereas only five out of 10 nutlin-3-adapted cell lines retained their sensitivity to RITA. In addition, repeated adaptation of the RITA-adapted sub-line UKF-NB-3rRITA10 μM to nutlin-3 resulted in p53 mutations. The RITA-adapted UKF-NB-3 sub-lines displayed no or less pronounced resistance to vincristine, cisplatin, and irradiation than nutlin-3-adapted UKF-NB-3 sub-lines. Furthermore, adaptation to RITA was associated with fewer changes at the expression level of antiapoptotic factors than observed with adaptation to nutlin-3. Transcriptomic analyses indicated the RITA-adapted sub-lines to be more similar at the gene expression level to the parental UKF-NB-3 cells than nutlin-3-adapted UKF-NB-3 sub-lines, which correlates with the observed chemotherapy and irradiation sensitivity phenotypes. In conclusion, RITA-adapted cells retain functional p53, remain sensitive to nutlin-3, and display a less pronounced resistance phenotype than nutlin-3-adapted cells.