Year of publication
- Lambda production near threshold in central nucleus-nucleus collisions (1981)
- Lambda 's produced in central collisions of 40Ar+KC1 at 1.8-GeV/u incident energy were detected in a streamer chamber by their charged-particle decay. For central collisions with impact parameters b<2.4 fm the Lambda production cross section is 7.6±2.2 mb. A calculation in which Lambda production occurs in the early stage of the collision qualitatively reproduces the results but underestimates the transverse momenta. An average Lambda polarization of -0.10±0.05 is observed. PACS numbers: 25.70 Bc
- Compression effects in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions (1982)
- The negative-pion multiplicity is measured for central collisions of 40Ar with KCl at eight energies from 0.36 to 1.8 GeV/nucleon and for 4He on KCl and 40Ar on BaI2 at 977 and 772 MeV/nucleon, respectively. A systematic discrepancy with a cascade-model calculation which fits proton- and pion-nucleus cross sections but omits potential-energy effects is used to derive the energy going into bulk compression of the system. A value of the incompressibility constant of K=240 MeV is extracted in a parabolic form of the nuclear-matter equation of state.
- Stopping power and collective flow of nuclear matter in the reaction Ar+Pb at 0.8 GeV/u (1983)
- Charged-particle exclusive data for Ar+Pb collisions at 0.772 GeV/u are analyzed in terms of collective variables for the event shapes in momentum space. Semicentral collisions lead to sidewards flow whereas nearly head-on collisions have spherical shapes in the c.m. frame, resulting from complete stopping of projectile motion. The hydrodynamical model predictions agree qualitatively with the data whereas the standard cascade model disagrees, lacking in stopping power and collective flow.
- Charged-particle exclusive analysis of central Ar + KCl and Ar + Pb reactions at 1.8 and 0.8 GeV/nucleon (1983)
- An event by event analysis is carried out for all charged particles observed in central collisions of 40Ar + KCl and 40Ar + Pb at 1.808 and 0.772 GeV/nucleon, respectively. Total transverse energy is used for impact parameter selection within the central trigger condition. The central Ar + KCl reaction exhibits a forward-backward oriented momentum flux. The flux distribution of the most central Ar + Pb events is approximately isotropic in the fireball center of mass.
- Pion and proton "temperatures" in relativistic heavy-ion reactions (1984)
- Pion and proton production are measured to investigate thermal equilibrium in central collisions of 40Ar+KCl at 1.8 GeV/nucleon. The bulk of the pion yield is isotropic in the c.m. system, with an apparent temperature of 58±3 MeV, much lower than the 118±2 MeV of the protons. It is shown that the low pion "temperature" can be explained by the decay kinematics of delta resonances in thermal equilibrium. A (5±1)% component in the pion spectrum is, however, found to have a temperature of 110±10 MeV. The effect on the spectra of possible contributions from collective radial flow is discussed.
- Collective motion in nucleus-nucleus collisions at 800 MeV/nucleon (1988)
- Semicentral Ar+KCl, La+La, and Ar+Pb collisions at 800 MeV/nucleon were studied using a streamer chamber. The results are analyzed in the framework of the transverse momentum analysis and in terms of the average sphericity matrix. A critical examination of the analysis procedures, both experimental and theoretical, is given. New procedures are described to account for overall momentum conservation in the reaction, and to correct for azimuthal variations in the detection efficiency. Average transverse momenta per nucleon in the reaction plane are presented for deuterons emitted in the forward hemisphere, as these provide the most reliable information. A Vlasov-Uehling-Uhlenbeck calculation with a stiff equation of state gives a good fit to the momenta in the Ar+Pb reaction. Flow effects parametrized further using the sphericity tensor are found stronger than in the cascade model and consistently weaker than predicted by hydrodynamics. Parameters from the sphericity tensor exhibit a larger variation as a function of multiplicity than do the average momenta per nucleon.
- Collective motion in Ar+Pb collision at beam energies between 400 and 1800 MeV/nucleon (1992)
- The energy dependence of rapidity distributions and flow effects was studied in central Ar+Pb collisions at 400, 800, and 1800 MeV/nucleon using a streamer chamber. Rapidity distributions for proton and pions are found to have a Gaussian shape whereas those for deuterons exhibit a two-peak structure at the two higher energies. The average in-plane transverse momentum per/nucleon and per/event shows saturation of flow around 800 MeV/nucleon for this asymmetric system. The aspect ratio of the sphericity tensor is closely correlated with the flow angle. This correlation appears to be independent of beam energy. The number of participating nucleons in central collisions varies from 213 at 400 to 135 at 1800 MeV/nucleon indicating that at the lowest energy almost the entire target nucleus participates in the collision.
- Azimuthally anisotropic emission of pions in symmetric heavy-ion collisions (1993)
- Triple differential cross sections d3 sigma /dp3 for charged pions produced in symmetric heavy-ion collisions were measured with the KaoS magnetic spectrometer at the heavy-ion synchrotron facility SIS at GSI. The correlations between the momentum vectors of charged pions and the reaction plane in 197Au+197Au collisions at an incident energy of 1 GeV/nucleon were determined. We observe, for the first time, an azimuthally anisotropic distribution of pions, with enhanced emission perpendicular to the reaction plane. The anisotropy is most pronounced for pions of high transverse momentum in semicentral collisions.
- Charged particle spectra in central S+S collisions at 200 GeV/c per nucleon (1994)
- The transverse momentum and rapidity distributions of negative hadrons and participant protons have been measured for central 32S+ 32S collisions at plab=200 GeV/c per nucleon. The proton mean rapidity shift < Delta y>~1.6 and mean transverse momentum <pT>~0.6 GeV/c are much higher than in pp or peripheral AA collisions and indicate an increase in the nuclear stopping power. All pT spectra exhibit similar source temperatures. Including previous results for K0s Lambda , and Lambda -bar, we account for all important contributions to particle production.