Year of publication
- Extracting the equation of state from a microscopic non-equilibrium model (1996)
- We study the thermodynamic properties of infinite nuclear matter with the Ultrarelativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics (URQMD), a semiclassical transport model, running in a box with periodic boundary conditions. It appears that the energy density rises faster than T4 at high temperatures of T approx. 200 - 300 MeV. This indicates an increase in the number of degrees of freedom. Moreover, We have calculated direct photon production in Pb+Pb collisions at 160 GeV/u within this model. The direct photon slope from the microscopic calculation equals that from a hydrodynamical calculation without a phase transition in the equation of state of the photon source.
- "Pressure equilibration" in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions (1997)
- We study the time scale for pressure equilibration in heavy ion collisions at AGS energies within the three-fluid hydrodynamical model and a microscopic cascade model (UrQMD). We find that kinetic equilibrium is reached in both models after a time of 5 fm/c (center-of-mass time). Thus, observables which are sensitive to the early stage of the reaction differ considerably from the expectations within the instant thermalization scenario (one-fluid hydrodynamical model).
- Nuclear equation of state from the nonlinear relativistic mean field theory (1988)
- The properties of symmetric nuclear matter are investigated in the nonlinear relativistic mean field theory of nuclear matter. We consider the constraints imposed by four nuclear ground state properties on the coupling constants and on the equation of state at zero and at finite temperature. We find that the compression constant K(ρ0) as well as the temperature is irrelevant for the stiffness of the equation of state for m*(ρ0)≤0.7. The main point is that the relativistic mean field theory exhibits acausal and unphysical behavior for compressibilities below K(ρ0)=200 MeV. Every set of coupling constants with a negative quartic coupling constant c is unstable against small quantum fluctuations.
- Importance of nuclear viscosity and thermal conductivity and the analysis of the bounce-off effect in high energy heavy ion collisions (1981)
- We present an analysis of high energy heavy ion collisions at intermediate impact parameters, using a two-dimensional fluid-dynamical model including shear and bulk viscosity, heat conduction, a realistic treatment of the nuclear binding, and an analysis of the final thermal emission of free nucleons. We find large collective momentum transfer to projectile and target residues (the highly inelastic bounce-off effect) and explosion of the hot compressed shock zones formed during the impact. As the calculated azimuthal dependence of energy spectra and angular distributions of emitted nucleons depends strongly on the coefficients of viscosity and thermal conductivity, future exclusive measurements may allow for an experimental determination of these transport coefficients. The importance of 4π measurements with full azimuthal information is pointed out.
- Collective sideward flow of nuclear matter in violent high-energy heavy-ion collisions (1980)
- Angular and energy distributions of fragments emitted from fast nucleus-nucleus collisions (Ne--> U at 250, 400, and 800 MeV/N) are calculated with use of nuclear fluid dynamics. A characteristic dependence of the energy spectra and angular distributions on the impact parameter is predicted. The preferential sideward emission of reaction fragments observed in the calculation for nearly central collisions seems to be supported by recent experimental data.
- Kinetic energy flow in Nb(400 A MeV) + Nb: evidence for hydrodynamic compression of nuclear matter (1984)
- A kinetic-energy—flow analysis of multiplicity-selected collisions of 93Nb(Elab=400A MeV)+93Nb is performed on the basis of the nuclear fluid dynamical model. The effects of finite particle numbers on the flow tensor are explicitly taken into account. Strong sidewards peaks are predicted in dN/dcosθF, the distribution of event by event flow angles. This is in qualitative agreement with recent data from the "Plastic Ball" electronic detection system. Cascade simulations fail to reproduce the data.
- Time-dependent Hartree-Fock studies of superheavy molecules (1983)
- The time dependent Hartree-Fock approximation is used to study the dynamical formation of long-lived superheavy nuclear complexes. The effects of long-range Coulomb polarization are treated in terms of a classical quadrupole polarization model. Our calculations show the existence of "resonantlike" structures over a narrow range of bombarding energies near the Coulomb barrier. Calculations of 238U + 238U are presented and the consequences of these results for supercritical positron emission are discussed. NUCLEAR REACTIONS 238U + 238U collisions as a function of bombarding energy, in the time-dependent Hartree-Fock approximation. Superheavy molecules and strongly damped collisions.
- Viscous fluid dynamical calculation of the reaction 12C(85 MeV/nucleon) + 197Au (1983)
- Proton spectra have been calculated for the reaction 12C(85 MeV/nucleon) + 197Au using a three-dimensional hydrodynamical model with viscosity and thermal conductivity and final thermal breakup. The theoretical results are compared to recent data. It is shown that the predicted flow effects are not observable as a result of the impact parameter averaging inherent in the inclusive proton spectra. In contrast, angular distributions of medium mass nuclei (A>3) in nearly central collisions can provide signatures for flow effects.
- Jets of nuclear matter from high energy heavy ion collisions (1981)
- The fluid dynamical model is used to study the reactions 20Ne+238U and 40Ar+40Ca at Elab=390 MeV/nucleon. The calculated double differential cross sections d2σ/dΩdE exhibit sidewards maxima in agreement with recent experimental data. The azimuthal dependence of the triple differential distributions, to be obtained from an event-by-event analysis of 4π exclusive experiments, can yield deeper insight into the collision process: Jets of nuclear matter are predicted with a strongly impact-parameter-dependent thrust angle θjet(b). NUCLEAR REACTIONS Ar+Ca, Ne+U, Elab=393 MeV/nucleon, fluid dynamics with thermal breakup, double differential cross sections, azimuthal dependence of triple differential cross sections, event-by-event thrust analysis of 4π exclusive experiments.
- Phase transition of the nucleon-antinucleon plasma in a relativistic mean-field theory (1985)
- Studying Walecka's mean-field theory we find that one can reproduce the observed binding energy and density of nuclear matter within experimental precision in an area characterized by a line in the coupling-constant plane. A part of this line defines systems which exhibit a phase transition around Tc~200 MeV for zero baryon density. The rest corresponds to such systems where the phase transition is absent; in that case a peak appears in the specific heat around T~200 MeV. We interpret these results as indicating that the hadron phase of nuclear matter alone indicates the occurrence of an abrupt change in the bulk properties around ρV~0 and T~200 MeV.