- Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies (31) (remove)
- Heavy ions and X-rays in brain tumor treatment : a comparison of their biological effects on tissue slice cultures (2009)
- Background: In this interdisciplinary project, the biological effects of heavy ions are compared to those of X-rays using tissue slice culture preparations from rodents and humans. Advantages of this biological model are the conservation of an organotypic environment and the independency from genetic immortalization strategies used to generate cell lines. Its open access allows easy treatment and observation via live-imaging microscopy. Materials and methods: Rat brains and human brain tumor tissue are cut into 300 micro m thick tissue slices. These slices are cultivated using a membrane-based culture system and kept in an incubator at 37°C until treatment. The slices are treated with X-rays at the radiation facility of the University Hospital in Frankfurt at doses of up to 40 Gy. The heavy ion irradiations were performed at the UNILAC facility at GSI with different ions of 11.4 A MeV and fluences ranging from 0.5–10 x 106 particles/cm². Using 3D-confocal microscopy, cell-death and immune cell activation of the irradiated slices are analyzed. Planning of the irradiation experiments is done with simulation programs developed at GSI and FIAS. Results: After receiving a single application of either X-rays or heavy ions, slices were kept in culture for up to 9d post irradiation. DNA damage was visualized using gamma H2AXstaining. Here, a dose-dependent increase and time-dependent decrease could clearly be observed for the X-ray irradiation. Slices irradiated with heavy ions showed less gamma H2AX-positive cells distributed evenly throughout the slice, even though particles were calculated to penetrate only 90–100 micro m into the slice. Conclusions: Single irradiations of brain tissue, even at high doses of 40 Gy, will result neither in tissue damage visible on a macroscopic level nor necrosis. This is in line with the view that the brain is highly radio-resistant. However, DNA damage can be detected very well in tissue slices using gamma H2AX-immuno staining. Thus, slice cultures are an excellent tool to study radiation-induced damage and repair mechanisms in living tissues.
- Collapse of flow: probing the order of the phase transition (2007)
- We discuss the present collective flow signals for the phase transition to the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) and the collective flow as a barometer for the equation of state (EoS). We emphasize the importance of the flow excitation function from 1 to 50A GeV: here the hydrodynamicmodel has predicted the collapse of the v1-flow at ~ 10A GeV and of the v2-flow at ~ 40A GeV. In the latter case, this has recently been observed by the NA49 collaboration. Since hadronic rescattering models predict much larger flow than observed at this energy, we interpret this observation as potential evidence for a first order phase transition at high baryon density pB.
- Longitudinal fluid-dynamics for ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions (2006)
- We develop a 1+1 dimensional hydrodynamical model for central heavy-ion collisions at ultrarelativistic energies. Deviations from Bjorken's scaling are taken into account by implementing finite-size profiles for the initial energy density. The calculated rapidity distributions of pions, kaons and antiprotons in central Au+Au collisions at the c.m. energy 200 AGeV are compared with experimental data of the BRAHMS Collaboration. The sensitivity of the results to the choice of the equation of state, the parameters of initial state and the freeze-out conditions is investigated. The best fit of experimental data is obtained for a soft equation of state and Gaussian-like initial profiles of the energy density.
- Signatures for black hole production from hadronic observables at the Large Hadron Collider (2006)
- The concept of Large Extra Dimensions (LED) provides a way of solving the Hierarchy Problem which concerns the weakness of gravity compared with the strong and electro-weak forces. A consequence of LED is that miniature Black Holes (mini-BHs) may be produced at the Large Hadron Collider in p+p collisions. The present work uses the CHARYBDIS mini-BH generator code to simulate the hadronic signal which might be expected in a mid-rapidity particle tracking detector from the decay of these exotic objects if indeed they are produced. An estimate is also given for Pb+Pb collisions.
- Probing the symmetry energy and the degree of isospin equilibrium (2006)
- The rapidity dependence of the single- and double- neutron to proton ratios of nucleon emission from isospin-asymmetric but mass-symmetric reactions Zr+Ru and Ru+Zr at energy range 100 ~ 800 A MeV and impact parameter range 0 ~ 8 fm is investigated. The reaction system with isospin-asymmetry and mass-symmetry has the advantage of simultaneously showing up the dependence on the symmetry energy and the degree of the isospin equilibrium. We find that the beam energy- and the impact parameter dependence of the slope parameter of the double neutron to proton ratio (F_D) as function of rapidity are quite sensitive to the density dependence of symmetry energy, especially at energies E_b ~ 400 A MeV and reduced impact parameters around 0.5. Here the symmetry energy effect on the F_D is enhanced, as compared to the single neutron to proton ratio. The degree of the equilibrium with respect to isospin (isospin mixing) in terms of the F_D is addressed and its dependence on the symmetry energy is also discussed.
- Summary of theoretical contributions (2005)
- Results from various theoretical approaches and ideas presented at this exciting meeting (summary talk at the 5th International Conference on Physics and Astrophysics of Quark Gluon Plasma (ICPAQGP - 2005)) are reviewed. I also point towards future directions, in particular hydrodynamic behaviour induced by jets traveling through the quark-gluon plasma, which might be worth looking at in more detail.
- Pion and thermal photon spectra as a possible signal for a phase transition (2005)
- We calculate thermal photon and neutral pion spectra in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions in the framework of three-fluid hydrodynamics. Both spectra are quite sensitive to the equation of state used. In particular, within our model, recent data for S + Au at 200 AGeV can only be understood if a scenario with a phase transition (possibly to a quark-gluon plasma) is assumed. Results for Au+Au at 11 AGeV and Pb + Pb at 160 AGeV are also presented.
- Particle number fluctuations in high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions from microscopic transport approaches (2005)
- Event-by-event multiplicity fluctuations in nucleus-nucleus collisions are studied within the HSD and UrQMD transport models. The scaled variances of negative, positive, and all charged hadrons in Pb+Pb at 158 AGeV are analyzed in comparison to the data from the NA49 Collaboration. We find a dominant role of the fluctuations in the nucleon participant number for the final hadron multiplicity fluctuations. This fact can be used to check di erent scenarios of nucleus-nucleus collisions by measuring the final multiplicity fluctuations as a function of collision centrality. The analysis reveals surprising e ects in the recent NA49 data which indicate a rather strong mixing of the projectile and target hadron production sources even in peripheral collisions. PACS numbers: 25.75.-q,25.75.Gz,24.60.-k
- Collective flow of open and hidden charm in Au + Au collisions at s = 200-GeV (2005)
- We study the collective flow of open charm mesons and charmonia in Au + Au collisions at s = 200 GeV within the hadron-string-dynamics (HSD) transport approach. The detailed studies show that the coupling of D, mesons to the light hadrons leads to comparable directed and elliptic flow as for the light mesons. This also holds approximately for J/ mesons since more than 50% of the final charmonia for central and midcentral collisions stem from D + induced reactions in the transport calculations. The transverse momentum spectra of D, mesons and J/ s are only very moderately changed by the (pre-)hadronic interactions in HSD, which can be traced back to the collective flow generated by elastic interactions with the light hadrons. PACS-Nr. 25.75.-q, 13.60.Le, 14.40.Lb, 14.65.Dw
- Effect of isovector-scalar meson on neutron star matter in strong magnetic fields (2005)
- We study the effects of isovector-scalar meson delta on the equation of state (EOS) of neutron star matter in strong magnetic fields. The EOS of neutron-star matter and nucleon effective masses are calculated in the framework of Lagrangian field theory, which is solved within the mean-field approximation. From the numerical results one can find that the delta-field leads to a remarkable splitting of proton and neutron effective masses. The strength of delta-field decreases with the increasing of the magnetic field and is little at ultrastrong field. The proton effective mass is highly influenced by magnetic fields, while the effect of magnetic fields on the neutron effective mass is negligible. The EOS turns out to be stiffer at B < 10^15G but becomes softer at stronger magnetic field after including the delta-field. The AMM terms can affect the system merely at ultrastrong magnetic field(B > 10^19G). In the range of 10^15 G - 10^18 G the properties of neutron-star matter are found to be similar with those without magnetic fields.