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- Vlasov-Uehling-Uhlenbeck theory of medium energy heavy ion reactions: role of mean field dynamics and two body collisions (1985)
- The role of nonequilibrium and quantal effects in fast nucleus-nucleus collisions is studied via the Vlasov-Uehling-Uhlenbeck theory which includes the nuclear mean field dynamics, two-body collisions, and Pauli blocking. The intranuclear cascade model, where the dynamics is governed by independent NN collisions, and the Vlasov equation, where the nuclear mean field determines the collision dynamics, are also studied as reference cases. The Vlasov equation (no collision term) yields single particle distribution functions which–after the reaction–are only slightly modified in momentum space; even in central collisions, transparency is predicted. This is in agreement with the predictions of the quantal time-dependent Hartree-Fock method. In contrast, large momentum transfer is obtained when the Uehling-Uhlenbeck collision term is incorporated; then the final momentum distribution is nearly spherically symmetric in the center of mass and a well-equilibrated nuclear system is formed: the nuclei stop each other; the translational kinetic energy is transformed into randomized microscopic motion. The Vlasov-Uehling-Uhlenbeck theory is supplemented with a phase space coalescence model of fragment formation. Calculated proton spectra compare well with recent data for Ar(42, 92, and 137 MeV/nucleon) + Ca. Also the total yields of medium mass fragments are well reproduced in the present approach. The mean field dynamics without two-body collisions, on the other hand, exhibits forward peaked proton distributions, in contrast to the data. The cascade approach underpredicts the yields of low energy protons by more than an order of magnitude.

- Viscous fluid dynamical calculation of the reaction 12C(85 MeV/nucleon) + 197Au (1983)
- Proton spectra have been calculated for the reaction 12C(85 MeV/nucleon) + 197Au using a three-dimensional hydrodynamical model with viscosity and thermal conductivity and final thermal breakup. The theoretical results are compared to recent data. It is shown that the predicted flow effects are not observable as a result of the impact parameter averaging inherent in the inclusive proton spectra. In contrast, angular distributions of medium mass nuclei (A>3) in nearly central collisions can provide signatures for flow effects.

- Viscosity and the equation of state in high energy heavy-ion reactions (1993)
- Viscous hydrodynamic calculations of high energy heavy-ion collisions (Nb-Nb and Au-Au) from 200 to 800 MeV/nucleon are presented. The resulting baryon rapidity distributions, the in-plane transverse momentum transfer (bounce-off), and the azimuthal dependence of the midrapidity particles (off-plane squeeze out) compare well with Plastic Ball data. We find that the considered observables are sensitive both to the nuclear equation of state and to the nuclear shear viscosity η. Transverse momentum distributions indicate a high shear viscosity (η≊60 MeV/fm2 c) in the compression zone, in agreement with nuclear matter estimates. The bulk viscosity ζ influences only the entropy production during the expansion stage; collective observables like flow and dN/dY do not depend strongly on ζ. The recently observed off-plane (φ=90°) squeeze-out, which is found in the triple-differential rapidity distribution, exhibits the strongest sensitivity to the nuclear equation of state. It is demonstrated that for very central collisions, b=1 fm, the squeeze-out is visible even in the double-differential cross section. This is experimentally accessible by studying azimuthally symmetric events, as confirmed recently by data of the European 4π detector collaboration at Gesellchaft für Schwerionforschung Darmstadt.

- Van der Waals excluded volume model for Lorentz contracted rigid spheres (2000)
- Conventional cluster and virial expansions are generalized to momentum dependent interparticle potentials. The model with Lorentz contracted hard core potentials is considered, e.g. as hadron gas model. A Van der Waals-type model with a temperature dependent excluded volume is derived. Lorentz contraction effects at given temperature are stronger for light particles and make their effective excluded volume smaller than that of heavy ones.

- Unusual bound states of quark matter within the NJL model (2000)
- Properties of dense quark matter in and out of chemical equilibrium are studied within the SU(3) Nambu Jona-Lasinio model. In addition to the 4 fermion scalar and vector terms the model includes also the 6 fermion flavour mixing interaction. First we study a novel form of deconfined matter, meso-matter, which is composed of equal number of quarks and antiquarks. It can be thought of as a strongly compressed meson gas where mesons are melted into their elementary constituents, quarks and antiquarks. Strongly bound states in this quark antiquark matter are predicted for all flavour combinations of qq pairs. The maximum binding energy reaches up to 180 MeV per qq pair for mixtures with about 70% of strange (s¯s) pairs. Equilibrated baryon rich quark matter with various flavour compositions is also studied. In this case only shallow bound states appear in systems with a significant admixture(about 40%) of strange quarks (strangelets). Their binding energies are quite sensitive to the relative strengths of scalar and vector interactions. The common property of all these bound states is that they appear at high particle densities when the chiral symmetry is nearly restored. Thermal properties of meso-matter as well as chemically equilibrated strange quark matter are also investigated. Possible decay modes of these bound states are discussed.

- Unlike particle correlations and the strange quark matter distillation process (2002)
- We present a new technique for observing the strange quark matter distillation process based on unlike particle correlations. A simulation is presented based on the scenario of a two-phase thermodynamical evolution model.

- Transport model analysis of the transverse momentum and rapidity dependence of pion interferometry at SPS energies (2006)
- Based on the UrQMD transport model, the transverse momentum and the rapidity dependence of the Hanbury-Brown-Twiss (HBT) radii R_L, R_O, R_S as well as the cross term R_OL at SPS energies are investigated and compared with the experimental NA49 and CERES data. The rapidity dependence of the R_L, R_O, R_S is weak while the R_OL is significantly increased at large rapidities and small transverse momenta. The HBT "life-time" issue (the phenomenon that the calculated sqrt R_O^2-R_S^2 value is larger than the correspondingly extracted experimental data) is also present at SPS energies.

- Transport model analysis of femtoscopy data at RHIC energies (2006)
- The pion source as seen through HBT correlations at RHIC energies is investigated within the UrQMD approach. We find that the calculated transverse momentum, centrality, and system size dependence of the Pratt-HBT radii R_L and R_S are reasonably well in line with experimental data. The predicted R_O values in central heavy ion collisions are larger as compared to experimental data. The corresponding quantity sqrt R_O^2-R_S^2 of the pion emission source is somewhat larger than experimental estimates.

- Transport calculation of dilepton production at ultrarelativistic energies (1999)
- Dilepton spectra are calculated within the microscopic transport model UrQMD and compared to data from the CERES experiment. The invariant mass spectra in the region between 300 MeV and 600 MeV depend strongly on the mass dependence of the rho meson decay width which is not sufficiently determined by the Vector Meson Dominance model. A consistent explanation of both the recent Pb+Au data and the proton induced data can be given without additional medium effects.

- Transition to resonance-rich matter in heavy ion collisions at RHIC energies (2000)
- The equilibration of hot and dense nuclear matter produced in the central region in central Au+Au collisions at square root s = 200A GeV is studied within the microscopic transport model UrQMD. The pressure here becomes isotropic at t approx 5 fm/c. Within the next 15 fm/c the expansion of the matter proceeds almost isentropically with the entropy per baryon ratio S/A approx 150. During this period the equation of state in the (P, epsilon)-plane has a very simple form, P = 0.15 epsilon. Comparison with the statistical model (SM) of an ideal hadron gas reveals that the time of approx 20 fm/c may be too short to attain the fully equilibrated state. Particularly, the fractions of resonances are overpopulated in contrast to the SM values. The creation of such a long-lived resonance-rich state slows down the relaxation to chemical equilibrium and can be detected experimentally.