Year of publication
- Heavy ions and X-rays in brain tumor treatment : a comparison of their biological effects on tissue slice cultures (2009)
- Background: In this interdisciplinary project, the biological effects of heavy ions are compared to those of X-rays using tissue slice culture preparations from rodents and humans. Advantages of this biological model are the conservation of an organotypic environment and the independency from genetic immortalization strategies used to generate cell lines. Its open access allows easy treatment and observation via live-imaging microscopy. Materials and methods: Rat brains and human brain tumor tissue are cut into 300 micro m thick tissue slices. These slices are cultivated using a membrane-based culture system and kept in an incubator at 37°C until treatment. The slices are treated with X-rays at the radiation facility of the University Hospital in Frankfurt at doses of up to 40 Gy. The heavy ion irradiations were performed at the UNILAC facility at GSI with different ions of 11.4 A MeV and fluences ranging from 0.5–10 x 106 particles/cm². Using 3D-confocal microscopy, cell-death and immune cell activation of the irradiated slices are analyzed. Planning of the irradiation experiments is done with simulation programs developed at GSI and FIAS. Results: After receiving a single application of either X-rays or heavy ions, slices were kept in culture for up to 9d post irradiation. DNA damage was visualized using gamma H2AXstaining. Here, a dose-dependent increase and time-dependent decrease could clearly be observed for the X-ray irradiation. Slices irradiated with heavy ions showed less gamma H2AX-positive cells distributed evenly throughout the slice, even though particles were calculated to penetrate only 90–100 micro m into the slice. Conclusions: Single irradiations of brain tissue, even at high doses of 40 Gy, will result neither in tissue damage visible on a macroscopic level nor necrosis. This is in line with the view that the brain is highly radio-resistant. However, DNA damage can be detected very well in tissue slices using gamma H2AX-immuno staining. Thus, slice cultures are an excellent tool to study radiation-induced damage and repair mechanisms in living tissues.
- Collapse of flow: probing the order of the phase transition (2007)
- We discuss the present collective flow signals for the phase transition to the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) and the collective flow as a barometer for the equation of state (EoS). We emphasize the importance of the flow excitation function from 1 to 50A GeV: here the hydrodynamicmodel has predicted the collapse of the v1-flow at ~ 10A GeV and of the v2-flow at ~ 40A GeV. In the latter case, this has recently been observed by the NA49 collaboration. Since hadronic rescattering models predict much larger flow than observed at this energy, we interpret this observation as potential evidence for a first order phase transition at high baryon density pB.
- Hydrodynamic flow and jet induced mach shocks at RHIC and LHC (2007)
- We discuss the present collective flow signals for the phase transition to quark-gluon plasma (QGP) and the collective flow as a barometer for the equation of state (EoS). A study of Mach shocks induced by fast partonic jets propagating through the QGP is given. We predict a significant deformation of Mach shocks in central Au+Au collisions at RHIC and LHC energies as compared to the case of jet propagation in a static medium. Results of a hydrodynamical study of jet energy loss are presented.
- An introduction to mini black holes at LHC (2007)
- Relying on the existing estimates for the production cross sections of mini black holes in models with large extra dimensions, we review strategies for identifying those objects at collider experiments. We further consider a possible stable final state of such black holes and discuss their characteristic signatures. Keywords: Black holes
- Charmed signatures for phase transitions in heavy-ion collisions (2007)
- The interplay of charmonium production and suppression in In+In and Pb+Pb reactions at 158 AGeV and in Au+Au reactions at sqrt(s)=200 GeV is investigated with the HSD transport approach within the hadronic comover model' and the QGP melting scenario'. The results for the J/Psi suppression and the Psi' to J/Psi ratio are compared to the recent data of the NA50, NA60, and PHENIX Collaborations. We find that, at 158 AGeV, the comover absorption model performs better than the scenario of abrupt threshold melting. However, neither interaction with hadrons alone nor simple color screening satisfactory describes the data at sqrt(s)=200 GeV. A deconfined phase is clearly reached at RHIC, but a theory having the relevant degrees of freedom in this regime (strongly interacting quarks/gluons) is needed to study its transport properties.
- Longitudinal fluid-dynamics for ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions (2006)
- We develop a 1+1 dimensional hydrodynamical model for central heavy-ion collisions at ultrarelativistic energies. Deviations from Bjorken's scaling are taken into account by implementing finite-size profiles for the initial energy density. The calculated rapidity distributions of pions, kaons and antiprotons in central Au+Au collisions at the c.m. energy 200 AGeV are compared with experimental data of the BRAHMS Collaboration. The sensitivity of the results to the choice of the equation of state, the parameters of initial state and the freeze-out conditions is investigated. The best fit of experimental data is obtained for a soft equation of state and Gaussian-like initial profiles of the energy density.
- Signatures for black hole production from hadronic observables at the Large Hadron Collider (2006)
- The concept of Large Extra Dimensions (LED) provides a way of solving the Hierarchy Problem which concerns the weakness of gravity compared with the strong and electro-weak forces. A consequence of LED is that miniature Black Holes (mini-BHs) may be produced at the Large Hadron Collider in p+p collisions. The present work uses the CHARYBDIS mini-BH generator code to simulate the hadronic signal which might be expected in a mid-rapidity particle tracking detector from the decay of these exotic objects if indeed they are produced. An estimate is also given for Pb+Pb collisions.
- Probing the symmetry energy and the degree of isospin equilibrium (2006)
- The rapidity dependence of the single- and double- neutron to proton ratios of nucleon emission from isospin-asymmetric but mass-symmetric reactions Zr+Ru and Ru+Zr at energy range 100 ~ 800 A MeV and impact parameter range 0 ~ 8 fm is investigated. The reaction system with isospin-asymmetry and mass-symmetry has the advantage of simultaneously showing up the dependence on the symmetry energy and the degree of the isospin equilibrium. We find that the beam energy- and the impact parameter dependence of the slope parameter of the double neutron to proton ratio (F_D) as function of rapidity are quite sensitive to the density dependence of symmetry energy, especially at energies E_b ~ 400 A MeV and reduced impact parameters around 0.5. Here the symmetry energy effect on the F_D is enhanced, as compared to the single neutron to proton ratio. The degree of the equilibrium with respect to isospin (isospin mixing) in terms of the F_D is addressed and its dependence on the symmetry energy is also discussed.
- Open-charm enhancement at FAIR? (2006)
- We have calculated the D-meson spectral density at finite temperature within a self-consistent coupled-channel approach that generates dynamically the Lambda_c (2593) resonance. We find a small mass shift for the D-meson in this hot and dense medium while the spectral density develops a sizeable width. The reduced attraction felt by the D-meson in hot and dense matter together with the large width observed have important consequences for the D-meson production in the future CBM experiment at FAIR.
- Stable TeV - black hole remnants at the LHC : discovery through di-jet suppression, mono-jet emission and a supersonic boom in the quark-gluon plasma (2006)
- The production of Large Extra Dimension (LXD) Black Holes (BHs), with a new, fundamental mass scale of M_f = 1 TeV, has been predicted to occur at the Large Hadron Collider, LHC, with the formidable rate of 10^8 per year in p-p collisions at full energy, 14 TeV, and at full luminosity. We show that such LXD-BH formation will be experimentally observable at the LHC by the complete disappearance of all very high p_t (> 500 GeV) back-to-back correlated Di-Jets of total mass M > M_f = 1 TeV. We suggest to complement this clear cut-off signal at M > 2*500 GeV in the di-jet-correlation function by detecting the subsequent, Hawking-decay products of the LXD-BHs, namely either multiple high energy (> 100 GeV) SM Mono-Jets (i.e. away-side jet missing), sprayed off the evaporating BHs isentropically into all directions or the thermalization of the multiple overlapping Hawking-radiation in a eckler-Kapusta-Plasma. Microcanonical quantum statistical calculations of the Hawking evaporation process for these LXD-BHs show that cold black hole remnants (BHRs) of Mass sim M_f remain leftover as the ashes of these spectacular Di-Jet-suppressed events. Strong Di-Jet suppression is also expected with Heavy Ion beams at the LHC, due to Quark-Gluon-Plasma induced jet attenuation at medium to low jet energies, p_t < 200 GeV. The (Mono-)Jets in these events can be used to trigger for Tsunami-emission of secondary compressed QCD-matter at well defined Mach-angles, both at the trigger side and at the awayside (missing) jet. The Machshock-angles allow for a direct measurement of both the equation of state EoS and the speed of sound c_s via supersonic bang in the "big bang" matter. We discuss the importance of the underlying strong collective flow - the gluon storm - of the QCD- matter for the formation and evolution of these Machshock cones. We predict a significant deformation of Mach shocks from the gluon storm in central Au+Au collisions at RHIC and LHC energies, as compared to the case of weakly coupled jets propagating through a static medium. A possible complete stopping of pt > 50 GeV jets at the LHC in 2-3 fm yields nonlinear high density Mach shocks in he quark gluon plasma, which can be studied in the complex emission and disintegration pattern of the possibly supercooled matter. We report on first full 3-dimensional fluid dynamical studies of the strong effects of a first order phase transition on the evolution and the Tsunami-like Mach shock emission of the QCD matter.