Year of publication
- Collective sideward flow of nuclear matter in violent high-energy heavy-ion collisions (1980)
- Angular and energy distributions of fragments emitted from fast nucleus-nucleus collisions (Ne--> U at 250, 400, and 800 MeV/N) are calculated with use of nuclear fluid dynamics. A characteristic dependence of the energy spectra and angular distributions on the impact parameter is predicted. The preferential sideward emission of reaction fragments observed in the calculation for nearly central collisions seems to be supported by recent experimental data.
- Macroscopic nucleon-nucleon correlations caused by the bounce-off process in energetic collisions of heavy nuclei (1981)
- Two-particle correlation data are presented for the reaction Ar (800 MeV/ nucleon) + Pb. The experimental results are analyzed in the nuclear fluid dynamical and in a linear cascade model. We demonstrate that the collective hydrodynamical correlations dominate the measured two-particle correlation function for the heavy system studied. We discuss the transition from the early stages of the reaction which are governed by few nucleon correlations, to the later stages with their macroscopic flow which can only be reached using heavy colliding systems. The sensitivity of the correlation data on the underlying compressional dissipative processes is analyzed.
- Kinetic energy flow in Nb(400 A MeV) + Nb: evidence for hydrodynamic compression of nuclear matter (1984)
- A kinetic-energy—flow analysis of multiplicity-selected collisions of 93Nb(Elab=400A MeV)+93Nb is performed on the basis of the nuclear fluid dynamical model. The effects of finite particle numbers on the flow tensor are explicitly taken into account. Strong sidewards peaks are predicted in dN/dcosθF, the distribution of event by event flow angles. This is in qualitative agreement with recent data from the "Plastic Ball" electronic detection system. Cascade simulations fail to reproduce the data.
- Rapidity dependence of entropy production in proton- and nucleus-induced reactions on heavy nuclei (1984)
- The entropy of hot nuclear systems is deduced from the mass distribution of fragments emitted from high energy proton- and nucleus-induced reactions via a quantum statistical model. It is found that the entropy per baryon, S/A, of intermediate rapidity ("participant") fragments is higher than the entropy of target rapidity ("spectator") fragments. The spectator fragments exhibit S/A values of ≅ 1.8 independent of the projectile energy from 30 MeV/nucleon up to 350 GeV. This value of the entropy coincides with the entropy at which nuclear matter becomes unbound.
- Microscopic calculations of collective flow probing the short-range nature of the nuclear force (1984)
- Collisions between two nuclei have been modeled by numerical solution of classical approximations to the equations of motion of the constituent nucleons. For the reaction Nb(400 MeV/u)+Nb, a correlated sidewards emission of nucleons is observed. This is attributed to the repulsive short-range component of the nucleon-nucleon potential. A strong dependence of the flow angle on the impact parameter is observed, in accord with recent experimental results.
- Light particle spectra from 35 MeV/nucleon 12C-induced reactions on 197Au (1984)
- Energy spectra for p, d, t, 3He, 4He, and 6He from the reaction 12C+197Au at 35 MeV/nucleon are presented. A common intermediate rapidity source is identified using a moving source fit to the spectra that yields cross sections which are compared to analogous data at other bombarding energies and to several different models. The excitation function of the composite to proton ratios is compared with quantum statistical, hydrodynamic, and thermal models.
- Time-dependent Hartree-Fock studies of superheavy molecules (1983)
- The time dependent Hartree-Fock approximation is used to study the dynamical formation of long-lived superheavy nuclear complexes. The effects of long-range Coulomb polarization are treated in terms of a classical quadrupole polarization model. Our calculations show the existence of "resonantlike" structures over a narrow range of bombarding energies near the Coulomb barrier. Calculations of 238U + 238U are presented and the consequences of these results for supercritical positron emission are discussed. NUCLEAR REACTIONS 238U + 238U collisions as a function of bombarding energy, in the time-dependent Hartree-Fock approximation. Superheavy molecules and strongly damped collisions.
- Viscous fluid dynamical calculation of the reaction 12C(85 MeV/nucleon) + 197Au (1983)
- Proton spectra have been calculated for the reaction 12C(85 MeV/nucleon) + 197Au using a three-dimensional hydrodynamical model with viscosity and thermal conductivity and final thermal breakup. The theoretical results are compared to recent data. It is shown that the predicted flow effects are not observable as a result of the impact parameter averaging inherent in the inclusive proton spectra. In contrast, angular distributions of medium mass nuclei (A>3) in nearly central collisions can provide signatures for flow effects.
- Jets of nuclear matter from high energy heavy ion collisions (1981)
- The fluid dynamical model is used to study the reactions 20Ne+238U and 40Ar+40Ca at Elab=390 MeV/nucleon. The calculated double differential cross sections d2σ/dΩdE exhibit sidewards maxima in agreement with recent experimental data. The azimuthal dependence of the triple differential distributions, to be obtained from an event-by-event analysis of 4π exclusive experiments, can yield deeper insight into the collision process: Jets of nuclear matter are predicted with a strongly impact-parameter-dependent thrust angle θjet(b). NUCLEAR REACTIONS Ar+Ca, Ne+U, Elab=393 MeV/nucleon, fluid dynamics with thermal breakup, double differential cross sections, azimuthal dependence of triple differential cross sections, event-by-event thrust analysis of 4π exclusive experiments.
- Vlasov-Uehling-Uhlenbeck theory of medium energy heavy ion reactions: role of mean field dynamics and two body collisions (1985)
- The role of nonequilibrium and quantal effects in fast nucleus-nucleus collisions is studied via the Vlasov-Uehling-Uhlenbeck theory which includes the nuclear mean field dynamics, two-body collisions, and Pauli blocking. The intranuclear cascade model, where the dynamics is governed by independent NN collisions, and the Vlasov equation, where the nuclear mean field determines the collision dynamics, are also studied as reference cases. The Vlasov equation (no collision term) yields single particle distribution functions which–after the reaction–are only slightly modified in momentum space; even in central collisions, transparency is predicted. This is in agreement with the predictions of the quantal time-dependent Hartree-Fock method. In contrast, large momentum transfer is obtained when the Uehling-Uhlenbeck collision term is incorporated; then the final momentum distribution is nearly spherically symmetric in the center of mass and a well-equilibrated nuclear system is formed: the nuclei stop each other; the translational kinetic energy is transformed into randomized microscopic motion. The Vlasov-Uehling-Uhlenbeck theory is supplemented with a phase space coalescence model of fragment formation. Calculated proton spectra compare well with recent data for Ar(42, 92, and 137 MeV/nucleon) + Ca. Also the total yields of medium mass fragments are well reproduced in the present approach. The mean field dynamics without two-body collisions, on the other hand, exhibits forward peaked proton distributions, in contrast to the data. The cascade approach underpredicts the yields of low energy protons by more than an order of magnitude.