Year of publication
- 1999 (2) (remove)
- Study of space charge compensated LEBT for ESS (1999)
- To fulfil the requirements of ESS on beam transmission and emittance growth a detailed knowledge of the physics of beam formation as well as the interaction of the H- with the residual gas is substantial. Space charge compensated beam transport using solenoids for ion optics is in favour for the Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) between ion source and the first RFQ. Space charge compensation reduces the electrical self fields and beam radii and therefore emittance growth due to aberrations and redistribution. Transport of H- near the ion source is negatively influenced by the dipole fields required for beam extraction and e--dumping and the high gas pressure. The destruction of the rotational symmetry together with the space charge forces causes emittance growth and particle losses within the extraction system. High residual gas pressure near the extractor together with the high cross section for stripping will influence the transmission as well as space charge compensation. Therefore a detailed knowledge of the interaction of the residual gas with the beam and the influence of the external fields on the distribution of the compensation particles is necessary to reduce particle losses and emittance growth. Preliminary experiments using positive hydrogen ions for reference already show the influence of dipole fields on beam emittance. First measurements with H- confirm these results. Additional information on the interactions of the residual gas with the beam ions have been gained from the measurements using the momentum and energy analyser.
- Time-resolved investigation of the compensation process of pulsed ion beams (1999)
- A LEBT system consisting of an ion source, two solenoids, and a diagnostic section has been set up to investigate the space charge compensation process due to residual gas ionization  and to study experimentally the rise of compensation. To gain the radial beam potential distribution time resolved measurements of the residual gas ion energy distribution were carried out using a Hughes Rojanski analyzer [2,3]. To measure the radial density profile of the ion beam a CCD-camera performed time resolved measurements, which allow an estimation the rise time of compensation. Further the dynamic effect of the space charge compensation on the beam transport was shown. A numerical simulation under assumption of selfconsistent states  of the beam plasma has been used to determine plasma parameters such as the radial density profile and the temperature of the electrons. The acquired data show that the theoretical estimated rise time of space charge compensation neglecting electron losses is shorter than the build up time determined experimentally. An interpretation of the achieved results is given.