- Biochemie und Chemie (7) (remove)
- The C-terminus of p63 contains multiple regulatory elements with different functions (2010)
- The transcription factor p63 is expressed as at least six different isoforms, of which two have been assigned critical biological roles within ectodermal development and skin stem cell biology on the one hand and supervision of the genetic stability of oocytes on the other hand. These two isoforms contain a C-terminal inhibitory domain that negatively regulates their transcriptional activity. This inhibitory domain contains two individual components: one that uses an internal binding mechanism to interact with and mask the transactivation domain and one that is based on sumoylation. We have carried out an extensive alanine scanning study to identify critical regions within the inhibitory domain. These experiments show that a stretch of ~13 amino acids is crucial for the binding function. Further, investigation of transcriptional activity and the intracellular level of mutants that cannot be sumoylated suggests that sumoylation reduces the concentration of p63. We therefore propose that the inhibitory function of the C-terminal domain is in part due to direct inhibition of the transcriptional activity of the protein and in part due to indirect inhibition by controlling the concentration of p63. Keywords: p63, transcriptional regulation, auto-inhibition, sumoylation
- IAP-IAP complexes required for apoptosis resistance of C. trachomatis-infected cells (2006)
- Host cells infected with obligate intracellular bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis are profoundly resistant to diverse apoptotic stimuli. The molecular mechanisms underlying the block in apoptotic signaling of infected cells is not well understood. Here we investigated the molecular mechanism by which apoptosis induced via the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor is prevented in infected epithelial cells. Infection with C. trachomatis leads to the up-regulation of cellular inhibitor of apoptosis (cIAP)-2, and interfering with cIAP-2 up-regulation sensitized infected cells for TNF-induced apoptosis. Interestingly, besides cIAP-2, cIAP-1 and X-linked IAP, although not differentially regulated by infection, are required to maintain apoptosis resistance in infected cells. We detected that IAPs are constitutively organized in heteromeric complexes and small interfering RNA-mediated silencing of one of these IAPs affects the stability of another IAP. In particular, the stability of cIAP-2 is modulated by the presence of X-linked IAP and their interaction is stabilized in infected cells. Our observations suggest that IAPs are functional and stable as heteromers, a thus far undiscovered mechanism of IAP regulation and its role in modulation of apoptosis.
- IAPs as E3 ligases of Rac1 : shaping the move (2012)
- Inhibitors of Apoptosis Proteins (IAPs) are well-studied E3 ubiquitin ligases predominantly known for regulation of apoptosis. We uncovered that IAPs can function as a direct E3 ubiquitin ligase of RhoGTPase Rac1. cIAP1 and XIAP directly conjugate polyubiquitin chains to Lysine 147 of activated Rac1 and target it for proteasomal degradation. Consistently, loss of these IAPs by various strategies led to stabilization of Rac1 and mesenchymal mode of migration in tumor cells. IAPs also regulate Rac1 degradation upon RhoGDI1 depletion and CNF1 toxin treatment. Our observations revealed an evolutionarily conserved role of IAPs in regulating Rac1 stability shedding light on to the mechanisms behind ubiquitination–dependent inactivation of Rac1 signaling.
- Mcl-1 is a key regulator of apoptosis resistance in Chlamydia trachomatis-infected cells (2008)
- Chlamydia are obligate intracellular bacteria that cause variety of human diseases. Host cells infected with Chlamydia are protected against many different apoptotic stimuli. The induction of apoptosis resistance is thought to be an important immune escape mechanism allowing Chlamydia to replicate inside the host cell. Infection with C. trachomatis activates the Raf/MEK/ERK pathway and the PI3K/AKT pathway. Here we show that inhibition of these two pathways by chemical inhibitors sensitized C. trachomatis infected cells to granzyme B-mediated cell death. Infection leads to the Raf/MEK/ERK-mediated up-regulation and PI3K-dependent stabilization of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family member Mcl-1. Consistently, interfering with Mcl-1 up-regulation sensitized infected cells for apoptosis induced via the TNF receptor, DNA damage, granzyme B and stress. Our data suggest that Mcl-1 up-regulation is primarily required to maintain apoptosis resistance in C. trachomatis-infected cells.
- Bacterial porin disrupts mitochondrial membrane potential and sensitizes host cells to apoptosis (2009)
- The bacterial PorB porin, an ATP-binding beta-barrel protein of pathogenic Neisseria gonorrhoeae, triggers host cell apoptosis by an unknown mechanism. PorB is targeted to and imported by host cell mitochondria, causing the breakdown of the mitochondrial membrane potential (delta psi m). Here, we show that PorB induces the condensation of the mitochondrial matrix and the loss of cristae structures, sensitizing cells to the induction of apoptosis via signaling pathways activated by BH3-only proteins. PorB is imported into mitochondria through the general translocase TOM but, unexpectedly, is not recognized by the SAM sorting machinery, usually required for the assembly of beta-barrel proteins in the mitochondrial outer membrane. PorB integrates into the mitochondrial inner membrane, leading to the breakdown of delta psi m. The PorB channel is regulated by nucleotides and an isogenic PorB mutant defective in ATP-binding failed to induce delta psi m loss and apoptosis, demonstrating that dissipation of delta psi m is a requirement for cell death caused by neisserial infection.
- IAPs on the move: role of inhibitors of apoptosis proteins in cell migration (2013)
- Inhibitors of Apoptosis Proteins (IAPs) are a class of highly conserved proteins predominantly known for the regulation of caspases and immune signaling. However, recent evidence suggests a crucial role for these molecules in the regulation of tumor cell shape and migration by controlling MAPK, NF-κB and Rho GTPases. IAPs directly control Rho GTPases, thus regulating cell shape and migration. For instance, XIAP and cIAP1 function as the direct E3 ubiquitin ligases of Rac1 and target it for proteasomal degradation. IAPs are differentially expressed in tumor cells and have been targeted by several cancer therapeutic drugs that are currently in clinical trials. Here, we summarize the current knowledge on the role of IAPs in the regulation of cell migration and discuss the possible implications of these observations in regulating tumor cell metastases.