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- Statistical mechanics of semi-classical colored objects (1999)
- A microscopic model of deconfined matter based on color interactions between semi-classical quarks is studied. A hadronization mechanism is imposed to examine the properties and the disassembly of a thermalized quark plasma and to investigate the possible existence of a phase transition from quark matter to hadron matter.

- Self-consistent relativistic quantum transport theory of hadronic matter : the coupled nucleon, delta and pion system (1998)
- We derive the self-consistent relativistic quantum transport equation for the pion distribution function based on an effective Lagrangian of the QHD-II model. The closed time-path Green's function technique, the semi-classical, quasi-particle and Born approximation are employed in the derivation. Both the mean field and collision term are derived from the same Lagrangian and presented analytically. The dynamical equation for the pions is consistent with that for the nucleons and deltas which we developed before. Thus, we obtain a self-consistent relativistic transport model which describes the hadronic matter with N, Delta and pi degrees of freedom simultaneously. Within this approach, we investigate the medium effects on the pion dispersion relation as well as the pion absorption and pion production channels in cold nuclear matter. In contrast to the results of the non-relativistic model, the pion dispersion relation becomes harder at low momenta and softer at high momenta as compared to the free one. The theoretically predicted free pi N to Delta cross section is in agreement with the experimental data. Medium effects on the pi N to Delta cross section and momentum-dependent Delta-decay width are shown to be substantial.

- Relativistic transport theory of N, Delta and N* (1440) interacting through sigma, omega and pi mesons. (1997)
- A self-consistent relativistic integral-di erential equation of the Boltzmann- Uehling-Uhlenbeck-type for the N*(1440) resonance is developed based on an effective Lagrangian of baryons interacting through mesons. The closed time-path Green s function technique and semi-classical, quasi-particle and Born approxima- tions are employed in the derivation. The non-equilibrium RBUU-type equation for the N*(1440) is consistent with that of nucleon s and delta s which we derived before. Thus, we obtain a set of coupled equations for the N,Delta and N*(1440) distribution functions. All the N (1440)-relevant in-medium two-body scattering cross sections within the N,Delta and N*(1440) system are derived from the same effective Lagrangian in addition to the mean field and presented analytically, which can be directly used in the study of relativistic heavy-ion collisions. The theoreticalprediction of the free pp - pp* (1440) cross section is in good agreement with the experimental data. We calculate the in-medium N+N - N+N* , N* +N - N+N and N*+N - N* +N cross sections in cold nuclear matter up to twice the nuclear matter density. The influence of different choices of the N* N* coupling strengths, which can not be obtained through fitting certain experimental data, are discussed. The results show that the density dependence of predicted in-medium cross sections are sensitive to the N* N* coupling strengths used. An evident density dependence will appear when a large scalar coupling strength of g^(sigma) N*N* is assumed. PACS number(s): 24.10.Cn; 25.70.-z; 21.65.+f

- Relativistic transport theory for N, Delta and N*(1440) system (1998)
- A self-consistent relativistic Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck equation for the N (1440) resonance is developed based on an effective Lagrangian of baryons interacting through mesons. The equation is consistent with that of nucleon s and delta s which we derived before. Thus, we obtain a set of coupled equations for the N, Delta and N (1440) distribution functions. All the N (1440)-relevant in-medium two-body scattering cross sections within the N, Delta and N (1440) system are derived from the same effective Lagrangian in addition to the mean field and presented analytically. Medium effects on the cross sections are discussed.

- Relativistic quantum transport theory of hadronic matter: the coupled nucleon, delta and pion system (1998)
- We derive the relativistic quantum transport equation for the pion distribution function based on an effective Lagrangian of the QHD-II model. The closed time-path Green s function technique, the semi-classical, quasiparticle and Born approximation are employed in the derivation. Both the mean field and collision term are derived from the same Lagrangian and presented analytically. The dynamical equation for the pions is consistent with that for the nucleons and deltas which we developed before. Thus, we obtain a relativistic transport model which describes the hadronic matter with N,Delta and pi degrees of freedom simultaneously. Within this approach, we investigate the medium e ects on the pion dispersion relation as well as the pion absorption and pion production channels in cold nuclear matter. In contrast to the results of the non-relativistic model, the pion dispersion relation becomes harder at low momenta and softer at high momenta as compared to the free one, which is mainly caused by the relativistic kinetics. The theoretically predicted free pi*N -> Delta cross section is in agreement with the experimental data. Medium e ects on the pi*N -> Delta cross section and momentum-dependent Delta-decay width are shown to be substantial. PACS number(s): 24.10.Cn; 13.75.Cs; 21.65.+f; 25.70.-z

- Relativistic quantum transport theory of hadronic matter : the coupled nucleon, Delta, and pion system (1999)
- We derive the relativistic quantum transport equation for the pion distribution function based on an effective Lagrangian of the QHD-II model. The closed-time-path Green s function technique and the semiclassical, quasiparticle, and Born approximations are employed in the derivation. Both the mean field and collision term are derived from the same Lagrangian and presented analytically. The dynamical equation for the pions is consistent with that for the nucleons and Delta's which we developed before. Thus, we obtain a relativistic transport model which describes the hadronic matter with N,Delta, and pi degrees of freedom simultaneously. Within this approach, we investigate the medium effects on the pion dispersion relation as well as the pion absorption and pion production channels in cold nuclear matter. In contrast to the results of the nonrelativistic model, the pion dispersion relation becomes harder at low momenta and softer at high momenta as compared to the free one, which is mainly caused by the relativistic kinetics. The theoretically predicted free piN->Delta cross section is in agreement with the experimental data. Medium effects on the piN->Delta cross section and momentum-dependent Delta-decay width are shown to be substantial. PACS-numbers: 24.10.Jv, 13.75.Cs, 21.65.1f, 25.75.2q

- Physics opportunities at RHIC and LHC (1999)
- Nonequilibrium models (three-fluid hydrodynamics, UrQMD, and quark molecular dynamics) are used to discuss the uniqueness of often proposed experimental signatures for quark matter formation in relativistic heavy ion collisions from the SPS via RHIC to LHC. It is demonstrated that these models - although they do treat the most interesting early phase of the collisions quite differently (thermalizing QGP vs. coherent color fields with virtual particles) -- all yield a reasonable agreement with a large variety of the available heavy ion data. Hadron/hyperon yields, including J/Psi meson production/suppression, strange matter formation, dileptons, and directed flow (bounce-off and squeeze-out) are investigated. Observations of interesting phenomena in dense matter are reported. However, we emphasize the need for systematic future measurements to search for simultaneous irregularities in the excitation functions of several observables in order to come close to pinning the properties of hot, dense QCD matter from data. The role of future experiments with the STAR and ALICE detectors is pointed out.

- Nonequilibrium dynamics of a hadronizing quark gluon plasma (1999)
- We investigate the hadronic cooling of a quark droplet within a microscopic model. The color flux tube approach is used to describe the hadronization of the quark phase. The model reproduces experimental particle ratios equally well compared to a static thermal hadronic source. Furthermore, the dynamics of the decomposition of a quark-gluon plasma is investigated and time dependent particle ratios are found.

- Microscopic models for ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions (1998)
- In this paper, the concepts of microscopic transport theory are introduced and the features and shortcomings of the most commonly used ansatzes are discussed. In particular, the Ultrarelativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics (UrQMD) transport model is described in great detail. Based on the same principles as QMD and RQMD, it incorporates a vastly extended collision term with full baryon-antibaryon symmetry, 55 baryon and 32 meson species. Isospin is explicitly treated for all hadrons. The range of applicability stretches from E lab < 100$ MeV/nucleon up to E lab> 200$ GeV/nucleon, allowing for a consistent calculation of excitation functions from the intermediate energy domain up to ultrarelativistic energies. The main physics topics under discussion are stopping, particle production and collective flow.

- Microscopic colored quark dynamics in the soft nonperturbative regime : description of hadron formation in relativistic S+Au collisions at CERN (2001)
- The quark-molecular-dynamics model is used to study microscopically the dynamics of the coloured quark phase and the subsequent hadron formation in relativistic S+Au collisions at the CERN-SPS. Particle spectra and hadron ratios are compared to both data and the results of hadronic transport calculations. The non-equilibrium dynamics of hadronization and the loss of correlation among quarks are studied.