- Long-term behaviour of implant borne overdentures in the lower jaw retained by rigid conical crown attachments (2011)
- Purpose: The aim of this retrospective study is to evaluate the long term implant survival at 5 years, periimplantary conditions and prosthetic maintenance requirements for implant supported mandibular removable dentures retained on only 2 Ankylos® implants placed interforaminally in the mandible and using only conical double crown attachments. Materials and methods: Using the database at the Faculty of Dentistry, University of Frankfurt a selection process was performed to choose patients receiving only 2 Ankylos® implants placed interforaminally in the mandible and using only conical double crown attachments. Implant survival, periimplant condition (periodontal bleeding, plaque index and probing depth), bone loss (from panoramic radiographs) and mobility (using Periotest®) were monitored annually following implant loading. In addition a detailed prosthetic maintenance list was created for each patient based on their yearly checkups and emergency appointments. 37 patients with edentulous mandibles (34 with complete dentures in the upper jaw and 3 with tissue-tooth borne coverdentures) received 2 interforaminal Ankylos® implants (67 in the canine region, 7 in 2nd incisor region). Results: Mean Periotest® values at 5 years (-1.97 ±2.24) were lower than at loading (-1.47 ±2.33). A drop was seen in the Periotest® readings after the first year of loading. The decrease in mean Periotest® values between PTV5 and PTV 1 were not statistically significant (Tukey-Kramer test: p>0.05) 14 patients (37.8%) displayed no resorption at all with an average of 0.801 mm mesially and 0.807mm distally after 5 years. The most increase in bone loss was seen after the first year of loading. There was a gradual increase in bone resorption after the first year of loading. The differences between both distal and mesial bone resorption level at five years and at one year after loading are not significant (Tukey-Kramer test: p<0.05) Plaque and bleeding index values were low at a mean of 0.97 ±0.86 and 0.59 ±0.77 respectively after 5 years of loading. The increase from the first year of loading till the 5th year of loading was significantly higher for plaque measurements but not for bleeding measurements (Tukey-Kramer Test: p<0.05 and p>0.05 respectively). Mean probing depth values were higher after 5 years (2.61 ±0.92 mm) in comparison to the values at loading (2.15 ±0.75 mm). The difference between average values at year 5 and year 1 was statistically significant (Tukey-Kramer test: p<0.05). The most occurring form of maintenance was minor adjustments such as pressure point (15 patient or 40,5%) and relining 11 patients or 29.7%). Teeth breaking off the denture were less common (4 patients or 10.8%). 5 decementations of primary crowns occurred in 4 patients (10.8%) within the 5 year observation time. Other major complications were 4 loose abutments in 3 patients (8.1%), 3 decementations of secondary copings in 3 patients (8.1%) and 1 case (2.7%) in which the prosthetic metal framework fractured. No fracture of abutments or primary crowns occurred during the investigation. Implant survival was 100% percent after 5 years ,1 implants did not fulfil Albrektsson’s success criteria and showed more than 0.2 mm of bone loss per year after the first year of loading with the first year giving a success rate of 98.8%. Conclusion: In conclusion this study has demonstrated that patients have a wider variety of options when it comes to choosing a reliable prosthesis in the lower jaw. Patients with financial limitations can be provided with a reliable prosthetic option using removable dentures retained by conical double crown attachments on 2 implants. The requirements for such a construction are a mechanically stable implant system and a mechanically stable framework. When these prerequirments are fulfilled, the patient can be satisfied with a prosthesis of superior quality to other attachment types and the dentist can rely on the fact that frequent maintenance which costs time and money can be eliminated or at least reduced. Through further innovation this type of construction can also reach patients who are lower down on the economic scale such as elderly patients and retirees.