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- Transparency, mixing and reflection of initial flows in relativistic nuclear collisions (2006)
- We propose to use the hadron number fluctuations in the limited momentum regions to study the evolution of initial flows in high energy nuclear collisions. In this method by a proper preparation of a collision sample the projectile and target initial flows are marked in fluctuations in the number of colliding nucleons. We discuss three limiting cases of the evolution of flows, transparency, mixing and reflection, and present for them quantitative predictions obtained within several models. Finally, we apply the method to the NA49 results on fluctuations of the negatively charged hadron multiplicity in Pb+Pb interactions at 158A GeV and conclude that the data favor a hydrodynamical model with a significant degree of mixing of the initial flows at the early stage of collisions.

- On the early stage of nucleus-nucleus collisions (1998)
- A statistical model of the early stage of central nucleus--nucleus (A+A) collisions is developed. We suggest a description of the confined state with several free parameters fitted to a compilation of A+A data at the AGS. For the deconfined state a simple Bag model equation of state is assumed. The model leads to the conclusion that a Quark Gluon Plasma is created in central nucleus--nucleus collisions at the SPS. This result is in quantitative agreement with existing SPS data on pion and strangeness production and gives a natural explanation for their scaling behaviour. The localization and the properties of the transition region are discussed. It is shown that the deconfinement transition can be detected by observation of the characteristic energy dependence of pion and strangeness multiplicities, and by an increase of the event--by--event fluctuations. An attempt to understand the data on J/psi production in Pb+Pb collisions at the SPS within the same approach is presented.

- Pion Suppression in Nuclear Collisions (1997)
- The pion multiplicity per participating nucleon in central nucleus-nucleus collisions at the energies 2-15 A GeV is significantly smaller than in nucleon-nucleon interactions at the same collision energy. This effect of pion suppression is argued to appear due to the evolution of the system produced at the early stage of heavy-ion collisions towards a local thermodynamic equilibrium and further isentropic expansion.

- Power law in hadron production (2001)
- In high energy p+p(bar) interactions the mean multiplicity and transverse mass spectra of neutral mesons from eta to Upsilon (m = 0.5 - 10 GeV/c^2) and the transverse mass spectra of pions (m_T > 1 GeV/c^2) reveal a remarkable behaviour: they follow, over more than 10 orders of magnitude, the power-law function:The parameters C and P are energy dependent, but similar for all mesons produced at the same collision energy. This scaling resembles that expected in the statistical description of hadron production: the parameter P plays the role of a temperature and the normalisation constant C is analogous to the system volume. The fundamental difference is, however, in the form of the distribution function. In order to reproduce the experimental results and preserve the basic structure of the statistical approach the Boltzmann factor e^(-E/T) appearing in standard statistical mechanics has to be substituted by a power-law factor (E/Lambda)^(-P).

- Comment on 'Comparison of strangeness production between A + A and p + p reactions from 2 to 160 A GeV', by J. C. Dunlop and C. A. Ogilvie (2000)
- A recent paper on energy dependence of strangeness production in A+A and p+p interactions written by Dunlop and Ogilvie (Phys. ReV. C61 031901(R) (2000) indicates that there is a significant misunderstanding about the concept of strangeness enhancement and its role as a signal of Quark Gluon Plasma creation. In this comment we will try to clarify some essential points. 25.75.Dw, 13.85.Ni, 21.65.+f

- Charm estimate from the dilepton spectra in nuclear collisions (2001)
- A validity of a recent estimate of an upper limit of charm production in central Pb+Pb collisions at 158 AGeV is critically discussed. Within a simple model we study properties of the background subtraction procedure used for an extraction of the charm signal from the analysis of dilepton spectra. We demonstrate that a production asymmetry between positively and negatively charged background muons and a large multiplicity of signal pairs leads to biased results. Therefore the applicability of this procedure for the analysis of nucleus-nucleus data should be reconsidered before final conclusions on the upper limit estimate of charm production could be drawn.

- Evidence for statistical production of J/psi mesons in nuclear collisions at the CERN SPS (1999)
- The hypothesis of statistical production of J/psi mesons at hadronization is formulated and checked against experimental data. It explains in the natural way the observed scaling behavior of the J/psi to pion ratio at the CERN SPS energies. Using the multiplicities of J/psi and eta mesons the hadronization temperature T_H = 175 MeV is found, which agrees with the previous estimates of the temperature parameter based on the analysis of the hadron yield systematics.

- Baryon number conservation and statistical production of antibaryons (2000)
- The statistical production of antibaryons is considered within the canonical ensemble formulation. We demonstrate that the antibaryon suppression in small systems due to the exact baryon number conservation is rather different in the baryon-free (B=0) and baryon-rich (B>1) systems. At constant values of temperature and baryon density in the baryon-rich systems the density of the produced antibaryons is only weakly dependent on the size of the system. For realistic hadronization conditions this dependence appears to be close to B/(B+1) which is in agreement with the preliminary data of the NA49 Collaboration for the antiproton/pion ratio in nucleus-nucleus collisions at the CERN SPS energies. However, a consistent picture of antibaryon production within the statistical hadronization model has not yet been achieved. This is because the condition of constant hadronization temperature in the baryon-free systems leads to a contradiction with the data on the antiproton/pion ratio in e+e- interactions.

- Omega, J/psi and psi' transverse mass spectra at RHIC (2002)
- The transverse mass spectra of J/psi and psi' mesons and Omega hyperons produced in central Au+Au collisions at RHIC energies are discussed within a statistical model used successfully for the interpretation of the SPS results. The comparison of the presented model with the future RHIC data should serve as a further crucial test of the hypothesis of statistical production of charmonia at hadronization. Finally, in case of validity, the approach should allow to estimate the mean transverse flow velocity at the quark gluon plasma hadronization.

- Omega, J/psi and psi' production in nuclear collisions and quark gluon plasma hadronization (2002)
- The transverse mass spectra of Omega, J/psi and psi' in Pb+Pb collisions at 158 AGeV are studied within a hydrodynamical model of the quark gluon plasma expansion and hadronization. The model reproduces the existing data with the common hadronization parameters: temperature T=T_H = 170 MeV and average collective transverse velocity v_T = 0.2.