Year of publication
- Omega, J/psi and psi' production in nuclear collisions and quark gluon plasma hadronization (2002)
- The transverse mass spectra of Omega, J/psi and psi' in Pb+Pb collisions at 158 AGeV are studied within a hydrodynamical model of the quark gluon plasma expansion and hadronization. The model reproduces the existing data with the common hadronization parameters: temperature T=T_H = 170 MeV and average collective transverse velocity v_T = 0.2.
- Transverse momentum spectra of J/psi and psi prime mesons from quark gluon plasma hadronization in nuclear collisions (2001)
- Recent results on transverse mass spectra of J/psi and psi prime mesons in central Pb+Pb collisions at 158 AGeV are considered. It is shown that those results support a hypothesis of statistical production of charmonia at hadronization and suggest the early thermal freeze-out of J/psi and psi prime mesons. Based on this approach the collective transverse velocity of hadronizing quark gluon plasma is estimated to be <v^H_T> \approx 0.2. Predictions for transverse mass spectra of hidden and open charm mesons at SPS and RHIC are discussed.
- Fluctuations of strangeness and deconfinement phase transition in nucleus-nucleus collisions (2004)
- We suggest that the fluctuations of strange hadron multiplicity could be sensitive to the equation of state and microscopic structure of strongly interacting matter created at the early stage of high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions. They may serve as an important tool in the study of the deconfinement phase transition. We predict, within the statistical model of the early stage, that the ratio of properly filtered fluctuations of strange to non-strange hadron multiplicities should have a non-monotonic energy dependence with a minimum in the mixed phase region.
- Incident-energy dependence of the effective temperature in heavy-ion collisions (2003)
- We study the behaviour of the effective temperature for K+ in several energy domains. For this purpose, we apply the recently developed SPheRIO code for hydrodynamics in 3+1 dimensions, using both Landau-type compact initial conditions and spatially more spread ones. We show that initial conditions given in small volume, like Landau-type ones, are unable to reproduce the effective temperature together with other data (multiplicities and rapidity distributions). These quantities can be reproduced altogether only when using a large initial volume with an appropriate velocity distribution.
- Chemical equilibrium study in nucleus-nucleus collisions at relativistic energies (2004)
- We present a detailed study of chemical freeze-out in nucleus-nucleus collisions at beam energies of 11.6, 30, 40, 80 and 158A GeV. By analyzing hadronic multiplicities within the statistical hadronization approach, we have studied the strangeness production as a function of centre of mass energy and of the parameters of the source. We have tested and compared different versions of the statistical model, with special emphasis on possible explanations of the observed strangeness hadronic phase space under-saturation. We show that, in this energy range, the use of hadron yields at midrapidity instead of in full phase space artificially enhances strangeness production and could lead to incorrect conclusions as far as the occurrence of full chemical equilibrium is concerned. In addition to the basic model with an extra strange quark non-equilibrium parameter, we have tested three more schemes: a two-component model superimposing hadrons coming out of single nucleon-nucleon interactions to those emerging from large fireballs at equilibrium, a model with local strangeness neutrality and a model with strange and light quark non-equilibrium parameters. The behaviour of the source parameters as a function of colliding system and collision energy is studied. The description of strangeness production entails a non-monotonic energy dependence of strangeness saturation parameter gamma_S with a maximum around 30A GeV. We also present predictions of the production rates of still unmeasured hadrons including the newly discovered Theta^+(1540) pentaquark baryon.
- Energy dependence of transverse mass spectra of kaons produced in p+p and p+pbar interactions : a compilation (2003)
- The data on mT spectra of K0S K+ and K- mesons produced in all inelastic p + p and p + pbar interactions in the energy range sqrt(s)NN=4.7-1800GeV are compiled and analyzed. The spectra are parameterized by a single exponential function, dN/(m_T*dm_T)=C exp(-m_T/T), and the inverse slope parameter T is the main object of study. The T parameter is found to be similar for K0S, K+ and K- mesons. It increases monotonically with collision energy from T~30MeV at sqrt(s)NN=4.7GeV to T~220MeV at sqrt(s)NN=1800GeV. The T parameter measured in p+p and p+pbar interactions is significantly lower than the corresponding parameter obtained for central Pb+Pb collisions at all studied energies. Also the shape of the energy dependence of T is different for central Pb+Pb collisions and p+p(pbar) interactions.
- Energy scan program at the Cern SPS and an observation of the deconfinement phase transition in nucleus-nucleus collisions (2003)
- The history and the main results of the energy scan program at the CERN SPS are reviewed. Several anomalies in energy dependence of hadron production predicted as signals of deconfinement phase transition are observed and they indicate that the onset of deconfinement is located at about 30 A GeV. For the first time we seem to have clear evidence for the existence of a deconfined state of matter in nature.
- Fluctuations and deconfinement phase transition in nucleus-nucleus collisions (2004)
- We propose a method to experimentally study the equation of state of strongly interacting matter created at the early stage of nucleus--nucleus collisions. The method exploits the relation between relative entropy and energy fluctuations and equation of state. As a measurable quantity, the ratio of properly filtered multiplicity to energy fluctuations is proposed. Within a statistical approach to the early stage of nucleus-nucleus collisions, the fluctuation ratio manifests a non--monotonic collision energy dependence with a maximum in the domain where the onset of deconfinement occurs.
- Transverse activity of kaons and the deconfinement phase transition in nucleus-nucleus collisions (2003)
- We found that the experimental results on transverse mass spectra of kaons produced in central Pb+Pb (Au+Au) interactions show an anomalous dependence on the collision energy. The inverse slopes of the spectra increase with energy in the low (AGS) and high (RHIC) energy domains, whereas they are constant in the intermediate (SPS) energy range. We argue that this anomaly is probably caused by a modification of the equation of state in the transition region between confined and deconfined matter. This observation may be considered as a new signal, in addition to the previously reported anomalies in the pion and strangeness production, of the onset of deconfinement located in the low SPS energy domain.
- Particle number fluctuations in canonical ensemble (2004)
- Fluctuations of charged particle number are studied in the canonical ensemble. In the infinite volume limit the fluctuations in the canonical ensemble are different from the fluctuations in the grand canonical one. Thus, the well-known equivalence of both ensembles for the average quantities does not extend for the fluctuations. In view of a possible relevance of the results for the analysis of fluctuations in nuclear collisions at high energies, a role of the limited kinematical acceptance is studied.