- Part of a Book (5) (remove)
- A VLSI-design of the minimum entropy neuron (1994)
- One of the most interesting domains of feedforward networks is the processing of sensor signals. There do exist some networks which extract most of the information by implementing the maximum entropy principle for Gaussian sources. This is done by transforming input patterns to the base of eigenvectors of the input autocorrelation matrix with the biggest eigenvalues. The basic building block of these networks is the linear neuron, learning with the Oja learning rule. Nevertheless, some researchers in pattern recognition theory claim that for pattern recognition and classification clustering transformations are needed which reduce the intra-class entropy. This leads to stable, reliable features and is implemented for Gaussian sources by a linear transformation using the eigenvectors with the smallest eigenvalues. In another paper (Brause 1992) it is shown that the basic building block for such a transformation can be implemented by a linear neuron using an Anti-Hebb rule and restricted weights. This paper shows the analog VLSI design for such a building block, using standard modules of multiplication and addition. The most tedious problem in this VLSI-application is the design of an analog vector normalization circuitry. It can be shown that the standard approaches of weight summation will not give the convergence to the eigenvectors for a proper feature transformation. To avoid this problem, our design differs significantly from the standard approaches by computing the real Euclidean norm. Keywords: minimum entropy, principal component analysis, VLSI, neural networks, surface approximation, cluster transformation, weight normalization circuit.
- Image encoding by independent principal components (1998)
- The encoding of images by semantic entities is still an unresolved task. This paper proposes the encoding of images by only a few important components or image primitives. Classically, this can be done by the Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Recently, the Independent Component Analysis (ICA) has found strong interest in the signal processing and neural network community. Using this as pattern primitives we aim for source patterns with the highest occurrence probability or highest information. For the example of a synthetic image composed by characters this idea selects the salient ones. For natural images it does not lead to an acceptable reproduction error since no a-priori probabilities can be computed. Combining the traditional principal component criteria of PCA with the independence property of ICA we obtain a better encoding. It turns out that the Independent Principal Components (IPC) in contrast to the Principal Independent Components (PIC) implement the classical demand of Shannon’s rate distortion theory.
- Medical analysis and diagnosis by neural networks (2001)
- In its first part, this contribution reviews shortly the application of neural network methods to medical problems and characterizes its advantages and problems in the context of the medical background. Successful application examples show that human diagnostic capabilities are significantly worse than the neural diagnostic systems. Then, paradigm of neural networks is shortly introduced and the main problems of medical data base and the basic approaches for training and testing a network by medical data are described. Additionally, the problem of interfacing the network and its result is given and the neuro-fuzzy approach is presented. Finally, as case study of neural rule based diagnosis septic shock diagnosis is described, on one hand by a growing neural network and on the other hand by a rule based system. Keywords: Statistical Classification, Adaptive Prediction, Neural Networks, Neurofuzzy, Medical Systems
- Septic shock diagnosis by neural networks and rule based systems (2002)
- In intensive care units physicians are aware of a high lethality rate of septic shock patients. In this contribution we present typical problems and results of a retrospective, data driven analysis based on two neural network methods applied on the data of two clinical studies. Our approach includes necessary steps of data mining, i.e. building up a data base, cleaning and preprocessing the data and finally choosing an adequate analysis for the medical patient data. We chose two architectures based on supervised neural networks. The patient data is classified into two classes (survived and deceased) by a diagnosis based either on the black-box approach of a growing RBF network and otherwise on a second network which can be used to explain its diagnosis by human-understandable diagnostic rules. The advantages and drawbacks of these classification methods for an early warning system are discussed.
- Adaptive content mapping for internet navigation (2003)
- The Internet as the biggest human library ever assembled keeps on growing. Although all kinds of information carriers (e.g. audio/video/hybrid file formats) are available, text based documents dominate. It is estimated that about 80% of all information worldwide stored electronically exists in (or can be converted into) text form. More and more, all kinds of documents are generated by means of a text processing system and are therefore available electronically. Nowadays, many printed journals are also published online and may even discontinue to appear in print form tomorrow. This development has many convincing advantages: the documents are both available faster (cf. prepress services) and cheaper, they can be searched more easily, the physical storage only needs a fraction of the space previously necessary and the medium will not age. For most people, fast and easy access is the most interesting feature of the new age; computer-aided search for specific documents or Web pages becomes the basic tool for information-oriented work. But this tool has problems. The current keyword based search machines available on the Internet are not really appropriate for such a task; either there are (way) too many documents matching the specified keywords are presented or none at all. The problem lies in the fact that it is often very difficult to choose appropriate terms describing the desired topic in the first place. This contribution discusses the current state-of-the-art techniques in content-based searching (along with common visualization/browsing approaches) and proposes a particular adaptive solution for intuitive Internet document navigation, which not only enables the user to provide full texts instead of manually selected keywords (if available), but also allows him/her to explore the whole database.