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- The principal independent components of images (1998)
- Classically, encoding of images by only a few, important components is done by the Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Recently, a data analysis tool called Independent Component Analysis (ICA) for the separation of independent influences in signals has found strong interest in the neural network community. This approach has also been applied to images. Whereas the approach assumes continuous source channels mixed up to the same number of channels by a mixing matrix, we assume that images are composed by only a few image primitives. This means that for images we have less sources than pixels. Additionally, in order to reduce unimportant information, we aim only for the most important source patterns with the highest occurrence probabilities or biggest information called „Principal Independent Components (PIC)“. For the example of a synthetic picture composed by characters this idea gives us the most important ones. Nevertheless, for natural images where no a-priori probabilities can be computed this does not lead to an acceptable reproduction error. Combining the traditional principal component criteria of PCA with the independence property of ICA we obtain a better encoding. It turns out that this definition of PIC implements the classical demand of Shannon’s rate distortion theory.

- The principal independent components of images (1998)
- This paper proposes a new approach for the encoding of images by only a few important components. Classically, this is done by the Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Recently, the Independent Component Analysis (ICA) has found strong interest in the neural network community. Applied to images, we aim for the most important source patterns with the highest occurrence probability or highest information called principal independent components (PIC). For the example of a synthetic image composed by characters this idea selects the salient ones. For natural images it does not lead to an acceptable reproduction error since no a-priori probabilities can be computed. Combining the traditional principal component criteria of PCA with the independence property of ICA we obtain a better encoding. It turns out that this definition of PIC implements the classical demand of Shannon’s rate distortion theory.

- Image encoding by independent principal components (1998)
- The encoding of images by semantic entities is still an unresolved task. This paper proposes the encoding of images by only a few important components or image primitives. Classically, this can be done by the Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Recently, the Independent Component Analysis (ICA) has found strong interest in the signal processing and neural network community. Using this as pattern primitives we aim for source patterns with the highest occurrence probability or highest information. For the example of a synthetic image composed by characters this idea selects the salient ones. For natural images it does not lead to an acceptable reproduction error since no a-priori probabilities can be computed. Combining the traditional principal component criteria of PCA with the independence property of ICA we obtain a better encoding. It turns out that the Independent Principal Components (IPC) in contrast to the Principal Independent Components (PIC) implement the classical demand of Shannon’s rate distortion theory.

- MASCOT: a mechanism for attention-based scale-invariant object recognition in images (2000)
- The efficient management of large multimedia databases requires the development of new techniques to process, characterize, and search for multimedia objects. Especially in the case of image data, the rapidly growing amount of documents prohibits a manual description of the images’ content. Instead, the automated characterization is highly desirable to support annotation and retrieval of digital images. However, this is a very complex and still unsolved task. To contribute to a solution of this problem, we have developed a mechanism for recognizing objects in images based on the query by example paradigm. Therefore, the most salient image features of an example image representing the searched object are extracted to obtain a scale-invariant object model. The use of this model provides an efficient and robust strategy for recognizing objects in images independently of their size. Further applications of the mechanism are classical recognition tasks such as scene decomposition or object tracking in video sequences.

- Approximator networks and the principle of optimal information distribution (1991)
- It is well known that artificial neural nets can be used as approximators of any continous functions to any desired degree. Nevertheless, for a given application and a given network architecture the non-trivial task rests to determine the necessary number of neurons and the necessary accuracy (number of bits) per weight for a satisfactory operation. In this paper the problem is treated by an information theoretic approach. The values for the weights and thresholds in the approximator network are determined analytically. Furthermore, the accuracy of the weights and the number of neurons are seen as general system parameters which determine the the maximal output information (i.e. the approximation error) by the absolute amount and the relative distribution of information contained in the network. A new principle of optimal information distribution is proposed and the conditions for the optimal system parameters are derived. For the simple, instructive example of a linear approximation of a non-linear, quadratic function, the principle of optimal information distribution gives the the optimal system parameters, i.e. the number of neurons and the different resolutions of the variables.

- The error-bounded descriptional complexity of approximation networks (1993)
- It is well known that artificial neural nets can be used as approximators of any continuous functions to any desired degree and therefore be used e.g. in high - speed, real-time process control. Nevertheless, for a given application and a given network architecture the non-trivial task remains to determine the necessary number of neurons and the necessary accuracy (number of bits) per weight for a satisfactory operation which are critical issues in VLSI and computer implementations of nontrivial tasks. In this paper the accuracy of the weights and the number of neurons are seen as general system parameters which determine the maximal approximation error by the absolute amount and the relative distribution of information contained in the network. We define as the error-bounded network descriptional complexity the minimal number of bits for a class of approximation networks which show a certain approximation error and achieve the conditions for this goal by the new principle of optimal information distribution. For two examples, a simple linear approximation of a non-linear, quadratic function and a non-linear approximation of the inverse kinematic transformation used in robot manipulator control, the principle of optimal information distribution gives the the optimal number of neurons and the resolutions of the variables, i.e. the minimal amount of storage for the neural net. Keywords: Kolmogorov complexity, e-Entropy, rate-distortion theory, approximation networks, information distribution, weight resolutions, Kohonen mapping, robot control.

- A VLSI-design of the minimum entropy neuron (1994)
- One of the most interesting domains of feedforward networks is the processing of sensor signals. There do exist some networks which extract most of the information by implementing the maximum entropy principle for Gaussian sources. This is done by transforming input patterns to the base of eigenvectors of the input autocorrelation matrix with the biggest eigenvalues. The basic building block of these networks is the linear neuron, learning with the Oja learning rule. Nevertheless, some researchers in pattern recognition theory claim that for pattern recognition and classification clustering transformations are needed which reduce the intra-class entropy. This leads to stable, reliable features and is implemented for Gaussian sources by a linear transformation using the eigenvectors with the smallest eigenvalues. In another paper (Brause 1992) it is shown that the basic building block for such a transformation can be implemented by a linear neuron using an Anti-Hebb rule and restricted weights. This paper shows the analog VLSI design for such a building block, using standard modules of multiplication and addition. The most tedious problem in this VLSI-application is the design of an analog vector normalization circuitry. It can be shown that the standard approaches of weight summation will not give the convergence to the eigenvectors for a proper feature transformation. To avoid this problem, our design differs significantly from the standard approaches by computing the real Euclidean norm. Keywords: minimum entropy, principal component analysis, VLSI, neural networks, surface approximation, cluster transformation, weight normalization circuit.

- Self-organized learning in multi-layer networks (1995)
- We present a framework for the self-organized formation of high level learning by a statistical preprocessing of features. The paper focuses first on the formation of the features in the context of layers of feature processing units as a kind of resource-restricted associative multiresolution learning We clame that such an architecture must reach maturity by basic statistical proportions, optimizing the information processing capabilities of each layer. The final symbolic output is learned by pure association of features of different levels and kind of sensorial input. Finally, we also show that common error-correction learning for motor skills can be accomplished also by non-specific associative learning. Keywords: feedforward network layers, maximal information gain, restricted Hebbian learning, cellular neural nets, evolutionary associative learning

- Sensor encoding using lateral inhibited, self-organized cellular neural networks (1996)
- The paper focuses on the division of the sensor field into subsets of sensor events and proposes the linear transformation with the smallest achievable error for reproduction: the transform coding approach using the principal component analysis (PCA). For the implementation of the PCA, this paper introduces a new symmetrical, lateral inhibited neural network model, proposes an objective function for it and deduces the corresponding learning rules. The necessary conditions for the learning rate and the inhibition parameter for balancing the crosscorrelations vs. the autocorrelations are computed. The simulation reveals that an increasing inhibition can speed up the convergence process in the beginning slightly. In the remaining paper, the application of the network in picture encoding is discussed. Here, the use of non-completely connected networks for the self-organized formation of templates in cellular neural networks is shown. It turns out that the self-organizing Kohonen map is just the non-linear, first order approximation of a general self-organizing scheme. Hereby, the classical transform picture coding is changed to a parallel, local model of linear transformation by locally changing sets of self-organized eigenvector projections with overlapping input receptive fields. This approach favors an effective, cheap implementation of sensor encoding directly on the sensor chip. Keywords: Transform coding, Principal component analysis, Lateral inhibited network, Cellular neural network, Kohonen map, Self-organized eigenvector jets.

- Implementing the SCAN language by neural networks (1996)
- The real-time encryption of pictures is an important subject for many applications, e.g. television broadcast stations, network security, etc. The paper shows how the previously introduced SCAN encryption method can be easily implemented using binary neural network autoassociative memory.