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- Using RBF nets in rubber industry process control (1996)
- This paper describes the use of a radial basis function (RBF) neural network. It approximates the process parameters for the extrusion of a rubber profile used in tyre production. After introducing the problem, we describe the RBF net algorithm and the modeling of the industrial problem. The algorithm shows good results even using only a few training samples. It turns out that the „curse of dimensions“ plays an important role in the model. The paper concludes by a discussion of possible systematic error influences and improvements.

- Using growing RBF-nets in rubber industry process control (1999)
- This paper describes the use of a Radial Basis Function (RBF) neural network in the approximation of process parameters for the extrusion of a rubber profile in tyre production. After introducing the rubber industry problem, the RBF network model and the RBF net learning algorithm are developed, which uses a growing number of RBF units to compensate the approximation error up to the desired error limit. Its performance is shown for simple analytic examples. Then the paper describes the modelling of the industrial problem. Simulations show good results, even when using only a few training samples. The paper is concluded by a discussion of possible systematic error influences, improvements and potential generalisation benefits. Keywords: Adaptive process control; Parameter estimation; RBF-nets; Rubber extrusion

- The principal independent components of images (1998)
- Classically, encoding of images by only a few, important components is done by the Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Recently, a data analysis tool called Independent Component Analysis (ICA) for the separation of independent influences in signals has found strong interest in the neural network community. This approach has also been applied to images. Whereas the approach assumes continuous source channels mixed up to the same number of channels by a mixing matrix, we assume that images are composed by only a few image primitives. This means that for images we have less sources than pixels. Additionally, in order to reduce unimportant information, we aim only for the most important source patterns with the highest occurrence probabilities or biggest information called „Principal Independent Components (PIC)“. For the example of a synthetic picture composed by characters this idea gives us the most important ones. Nevertheless, for natural images where no a-priori probabilities can be computed this does not lead to an acceptable reproduction error. Combining the traditional principal component criteria of PCA with the independence property of ICA we obtain a better encoding. It turns out that this definition of PIC implements the classical demand of Shannon’s rate distortion theory.

- The principal independent components of images (1998)
- This paper proposes a new approach for the encoding of images by only a few important components. Classically, this is done by the Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Recently, the Independent Component Analysis (ICA) has found strong interest in the neural network community. Applied to images, we aim for the most important source patterns with the highest occurrence probability or highest information called principal independent components (PIC). For the example of a synthetic image composed by characters this idea selects the salient ones. For natural images it does not lead to an acceptable reproduction error since no a-priori probabilities can be computed. Combining the traditional principal component criteria of PCA with the independence property of ICA we obtain a better encoding. It turns out that this definition of PIC implements the classical demand of Shannon’s rate distortion theory.

- The performance of approximating ordinary differential equations by neural nets (2008)
- The dynamics of many systems are described by ordinary differential equations (ODE). Solving ODEs with standard methods (i.e. numerical integration) needs a high amount of computing time but only a small amount of storage memory. For some applications, e.g. short time weather forecast or real time robot control, long computation times are prohibitive. Is there a method which uses less computing time (but has drawbacks in other aspects, e.g. memory), so that the computation of ODEs gets faster? We will try to discuss this question for the assumption that the alternative computation method is a neural network which was trained on ODE dynamics and compare both methods using the same approximation error. This comparison is done with two different errors. First, we use the standard error that measures the difference between the approximation and the solution of the ODE which is hard to characterize. But in many cases, as for physics engines used in computer games, the shape of the approximation curve is important and not the exact values of the approximation. Therefore, we introduce a subjective error based on the Total Least Square Error (TLSE) which gives more consistent results. For the final performance comparison, we calculate the optimal resource usage for the neural network and evaluate it depending on the resolution of the interpolation points and the inter-point distance. Our conclusion gives a method to evaluate where neural nets are advantageous over numerical ODE integration and where this is not the case. Index Terms—ODE, neural nets, Euler method, approximation complexity, storage optimization.

- The error-bounded descriptional complexity of approximation networks (1993)
- It is well known that artificial neural nets can be used as approximators of any continuous functions to any desired degree and therefore be used e.g. in high - speed, real-time process control. Nevertheless, for a given application and a given network architecture the non-trivial task remains to determine the necessary number of neurons and the necessary accuracy (number of bits) per weight for a satisfactory operation which are critical issues in VLSI and computer implementations of nontrivial tasks. In this paper the accuracy of the weights and the number of neurons are seen as general system parameters which determine the maximal approximation error by the absolute amount and the relative distribution of information contained in the network. We define as the error-bounded network descriptional complexity the minimal number of bits for a class of approximation networks which show a certain approximation error and achieve the conditions for this goal by the new principle of optimal information distribution. For two examples, a simple linear approximation of a non-linear, quadratic function and a non-linear approximation of the inverse kinematic transformation used in robot manipulator control, the principle of optimal information distribution gives the the optimal number of neurons and the resolutions of the variables, i.e. the minimal amount of storage for the neural net. Keywords: Kolmogorov complexity, e-Entropy, rate-distortion theory, approximation networks, information distribution, weight resolutions, Kohonen mapping, robot control.

- Septic shock diagnosis by neural networks and rule based systems (2002)
- In intensive care units physicians are aware of a high lethality rate of septic shock patients. In this contribution we present typical problems and results of a retrospective, data driven analysis based on two neural network methods applied on the data of two clinical studies. Our approach includes necessary steps of data mining, i.e. building up a data base, cleaning and preprocessing the data and finally choosing an adequate analysis for the medical patient data. We chose two architectures based on supervised neural networks. The patient data is classified into two classes (survived and deceased) by a diagnosis based either on the black-box approach of a growing RBF network and otherwise on a second network which can be used to explain its diagnosis by human-understandable diagnostic rules. The advantages and drawbacks of these classification methods for an early warning system are discussed.

- Sensor encoding using lateral inhibited, self-organized cellular neural networks (1996)
- The paper focuses on the division of the sensor field into subsets of sensor events and proposes the linear transformation with the smallest achievable error for reproduction: the transform coding approach using the principal component analysis (PCA). For the implementation of the PCA, this paper introduces a new symmetrical, lateral inhibited neural network model, proposes an objective function for it and deduces the corresponding learning rules. The necessary conditions for the learning rate and the inhibition parameter for balancing the crosscorrelations vs. the autocorrelations are computed. The simulation reveals that an increasing inhibition can speed up the convergence process in the beginning slightly. In the remaining paper, the application of the network in picture encoding is discussed. Here, the use of non-completely connected networks for the self-organized formation of templates in cellular neural networks is shown. It turns out that the self-organizing Kohonen map is just the non-linear, first order approximation of a general self-organizing scheme. Hereby, the classical transform picture coding is changed to a parallel, local model of linear transformation by locally changing sets of self-organized eigenvector projections with overlapping input receptive fields. This approach favors an effective, cheap implementation of sensor encoding directly on the sensor chip. Keywords: Transform coding, Principal component analysis, Lateral inhibited network, Cellular neural network, Kohonen map, Self-organized eigenvector jets.

- Self-organized learning in multi-layer networks (1995)
- We present a framework for the self-organized formation of high level learning by a statistical preprocessing of features. The paper focuses first on the formation of the features in the context of layers of feature processing units as a kind of resource-restricted associative multiresolution learning We clame that such an architecture must reach maturity by basic statistical proportions, optimizing the information processing capabilities of each layer. The final symbolic output is learned by pure association of features of different levels and kind of sensorial input. Finally, we also show that common error-correction learning for motor skills can be accomplished also by non-specific associative learning. Keywords: feedforward network layers, maximal information gain, restricted Hebbian learning, cellular neural nets, evolutionary associative learning