Year of publication
- Sensor encoding using lateral inhibited, self-organized cellular neural networks (1996)
- The paper focuses on the division of the sensor field into subsets of sensor events and proposes the linear transformation with the smallest achievable error for reproduction: the transform coding approach using the principal component analysis (PCA). For the implementation of the PCA, this paper introduces a new symmetrical, lateral inhibited neural network model, proposes an objective function for it and deduces the corresponding learning rules. The necessary conditions for the learning rate and the inhibition parameter for balancing the crosscorrelations vs. the autocorrelations are computed. The simulation reveals that an increasing inhibition can speed up the convergence process in the beginning slightly. In the remaining paper, the application of the network in picture encoding is discussed. Here, the use of non-completely connected networks for the self-organized formation of templates in cellular neural networks is shown. It turns out that the self-organizing Kohonen map is just the non-linear, first order approximation of a general self-organizing scheme. Hereby, the classical transform picture coding is changed to a parallel, local model of linear transformation by locally changing sets of self-organized eigenvector projections with overlapping input receptive fields. This approach favors an effective, cheap implementation of sensor encoding directly on the sensor chip. Keywords: Transform coding, Principal component analysis, Lateral inhibited network, Cellular neural network, Kohonen map, Self-organized eigenvector jets.
- Using RBF nets in rubber industry process control (1996)
- This paper describes the use of a radial basis function (RBF) neural network. It approximates the process parameters for the extrusion of a rubber profile used in tyre production. After introducing the problem, we describe the RBF net algorithm and the modeling of the industrial problem. The algorithm shows good results even using only a few training samples. It turns out that the „curse of dimensions“ plays an important role in the model. The paper concludes by a discussion of possible systematic error influences and improvements.
- Implementing the SCAN language by neural networks (1996)
- The real-time encryption of pictures is an important subject for many applications, e.g. television broadcast stations, network security, etc. The paper shows how the previously introduced SCAN encryption method can be easily implemented using binary neural network autoassociative memory.
- Individuelle Prognose bei kritisch kranken Patienten mit septischem Schock durch ein neuronales Netz? (1998)
- Im Zeitraum 1. 11. 1993 bis 30. 3. 1997 wurden 1149 allgemeinchirurgische Intensivpatienten prospektiv erfaßt, von denen 114 die Kriterien des septischen Schocks erfüllten. Die Letalität der Patienten mit einem septischen Schock betrug 47,3%. Nach Training eines neuronalen Netzes mit 91 (von insgesamt n = 114) Patienten ergab die Testung bei den verbleibenden 23 Patienten bei der Berücksichtigung von Parameterveränderungen vom 1. auf den 2. Tag des septischen Schocks folgendes Ergebnis: Alle 10 verstorbenen Patienten wurden korrekt als nicht überlebend vorhergesagt, von den 13 Überlebenden wurden 12 korrekt als überlebend vorhergesagt (Sensitivität 100%; Spezifität 92,3%). Schlüsselwörter: Neuronales Netzwerk , Prognose , Intensivpatient.
- Noise suppressing sensor encoding and neural signal orthonormalization (1998)
- In this paper we regard first the situation where parallel channels are disturbed by noise. With the goal of maximal information conservation we deduce the conditions for a transform which "immunizes" the channels against noise influence before the signals are used in later operations. It shows up that the signals have to be decorrelated and normalized by the filter which corresponds for the case of one channel to the classical result of Shannon. Additional simulations for image encoding and decoding show that this constitutes an efficient approach for noise suppression. Furthermore, by a corresponding objective function we deduce the stochastic and deterministic learning rules for a neural network that implements the data orthonormalization. In comparison with other already existing normalization networks our network shows approximately the same in the stochastic case but, by its generic deduction ensures the convergence and enables the use as independent building block in other contexts, e.g. whitening for independent component analysis. Keywords: information conservation, whitening filter, data orthonormalization network, image encoding, noise suppression.
- Adaptive process control in rubber industry (1998)
- This paper describes the problems and an adaptive solution for process control in rubber industry. We show that the human and economical benefits of an adaptive solution for the approximation of process parameters are very attractive. The modeling of the industrial problem is done by the means of artificial neural networks. For the example of the extrusion of a rubber profile in tire production our method shows good results even using only a few training samples.
- The principal independent components of images (1998)
- This paper proposes a new approach for the encoding of images by only a few important components. Classically, this is done by the Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Recently, the Independent Component Analysis (ICA) has found strong interest in the neural network community. Applied to images, we aim for the most important source patterns with the highest occurrence probability or highest information called principal independent components (PIC). For the example of a synthetic image composed by characters this idea selects the salient ones. For natural images it does not lead to an acceptable reproduction error since no a-priori probabilities can be computed. Combining the traditional principal component criteria of PCA with the independence property of ICA we obtain a better encoding. It turns out that this definition of PIC implements the classical demand of Shannon’s rate distortion theory.
- Image encoding by independent principal components (1998)
- The encoding of images by semantic entities is still an unresolved task. This paper proposes the encoding of images by only a few important components or image primitives. Classically, this can be done by the Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Recently, the Independent Component Analysis (ICA) has found strong interest in the signal processing and neural network community. Using this as pattern primitives we aim for source patterns with the highest occurrence probability or highest information. For the example of a synthetic image composed by characters this idea selects the salient ones. For natural images it does not lead to an acceptable reproduction error since no a-priori probabilities can be computed. Combining the traditional principal component criteria of PCA with the independence property of ICA we obtain a better encoding. It turns out that the Independent Principal Components (IPC) in contrast to the Principal Independent Components (PIC) implement the classical demand of Shannon’s rate distortion theory.
- Revolutionieren Neuronale Netze unsere Vorhersagefähigkeiten? (1999)
- Diese Arbeit plädiert für eine rationale Behandlung von Patientendaten und untersucht dazu die Analyse der Daten mit Hilfe neuronale Netze etwas näher. Erfolgreiche Beispielanwendungen zeigen, daß die menschlichen Diagnosefähigkeiten deutlich schlechter sind als neuronale Diagnosesysteme. Für das Beispiel der neueren Architektur mit RBF-Netzen wird die Funktionalität näher erläutert und gezeigt, wie menschliche und neuronale Expertise miteinander gekoppelt werden kann. Der Ausblick deutet Anwendungen und Praxisproblematik derartiger Systeme an.
- Using growing RBF-nets in rubber industry process control (1999)
- This paper describes the use of a Radial Basis Function (RBF) neural network in the approximation of process parameters for the extrusion of a rubber profile in tyre production. After introducing the rubber industry problem, the RBF network model and the RBF net learning algorithm are developed, which uses a growing number of RBF units to compensate the approximation error up to the desired error limit. Its performance is shown for simple analytic examples. Then the paper describes the modelling of the industrial problem. Simulations show good results, even when using only a few training samples. The paper is concluded by a discussion of possible systematic error influences, improvements and potential generalisation benefits. Keywords: Adaptive process control; Parameter estimation; RBF-nets; Rubber extrusion