Year of publication
- Article (78) (remove)
- Pion production in the 40Ar+40Ca reaction at 1.05 GeV/nucleon (1979)
- Pion-production cross sections have been measured for the reaction 40Ar+40Ca--> pi ++X at a laboratory energy of 1.05 GeV/nucleon. A maximum in the pi + cross section occurs at mid-rapidity, which is anomalous relative to p+p and p+nucleus reactions and compared to many other heavy-ion reactions. Calculations based on cascade and thermal models fail to fit the data.
- Pion production and charged-particle multiplicity selection in relativistic nuclear collisions (1982)
- Spectra of positive pions with energies of 15-95 MeV were measured for high energy proton, 4He, 20Ne, and 40Ar bombardments of targets of 27Al, 40Ca, 107,109Ag, 197Au, and 238U. A Si-Ge telescope was used to identify charged pions by dE / dx-E and, in addition, stopped pi + were tagged by the subsequent muon decay. In all, results for 14 target-projectile combinations are presented to study the dependence of pion emission patterns on the bombarding energy (from E / A=0.25 to 2.1 GeV) and on the target and the projectile masses. In addition, associated charged-particle multiplicities were measured in an 80-paddle array of plastic scintillators, and used to make impact parameter selections on the pion-inclusive data. NUCLEAR REACTIONS U(20Ne, pi +), E / A=250 MeV; U(40Ar, pi +), Ca(40Ar, pi +), U(20Ne, pi +), Au(20Ne, pi +), Ag(20Ne, pi +), Al(20Ne, pi +), U(4He, pi +), Al(4He, pi +). E / A=400 MeV; Ca(40Ar, pi +), U(20Ne, pi +), U(4He, pi +), U(p, pi +), E / A=1.05), GeV; U(20Ne, pi +), E / A=2.1 GeV; measured sigma (E, theta ), inclusive and selected on associated charged-particle multiplicity.
- 16O( gamma ,p) 15N reaction with linearly polarized photons (1981)
- The 16O ( gamma ,p0) reaction has been studied with linearly polarized bremsstrahlung photons in and below the giant E1 resonance. The parity of the absorbed radiation was determined from the observed azimuthal asymmetry of the emitted protons. Combined with unpolarized measurements the polarized results determine the proton decay amplitudes of the M1 resonance at Ex=16.2 MeV in 16O. The shape of the unpolarized 16O ( gamma ,p3) angular distribution in the giant E1 resonance was derived from the measured analyzing power. NUCLEAR REACTIONS 16O( gamma ,p), E=15-25 MeV; measured analyzing power theta =90° linearly polarized bremsstrahlung; 16O dipole levels deduced pi ; 16.2 MeV 1+ resonance deduced p0 decay amplitudes; 16O GEDR deduced p3 angular distribution.
- Parity of bound dipole states in 208Pb (1982)
- The parities of eleven J=1 levels in 208Pb were determined by nuclear resonance fluorescence scattering of linearly polarized photons. A new 1+ level at Ex=5.846 MeV with Gamma 02 / Gamma =1.2±0.4 eV was found. This level can probably be identified with the theoretically predicted isoscalar 1+ state in 208Pb. All other bound dipole states below 7 MeV with Gamma 02 / Gamma >1.5 eV have negative parity. The 1- assignment to the 4.842-MeV level is of special significance because of previous conflicting results about its parity.
- Parities of bound dipole states in 40Ar (1986)
- Nuclear resonance fluorescence experiments with linearly polarized bremsstrahlung were performed to determine parities of strong dipole transitions in 40Ar. A total of 14 transitions—ten of them previously unknown—in the energy range from 4.7 to 10.2 MeV could be identified. From this experiment it is evident that the main dipole strength to bound states is due to E1 excitations. An upper limit of B(M1) [up arrow] <0.5 µN2 was found for individual magnetic dipole excitations in 40Ar in the energy region below neutron threshold.
- Nuclear fireball model for proton inclusive spectra from relativistic heavy-ion collisions (1976)
- A simple model is proposed for the emission of nucleons with velocities intermediate between those of the target and projectile. In this model, the nucleons which are mutually swept out from the target and projectile form a hot quasiequilibrated fireball which decays as an ideal gas. The overall features of the proton-inclusive spectra from 250- and 400-MeV/nucleon 20Ne ions and 400-MeV/nucleon 4He ions interacting with uranium are fitted without any adjustable parameters.
- Charged-particle exclusive analysis of central Ar + KCl and Ar + Pb reactions at 1.8 and 0.8 GeV/nucleon (1983)
- An event by event analysis is carried out for all charged particles observed in central collisions of 40Ar + KCl and 40Ar + Pb at 1.808 and 0.772 GeV/nucleon, respectively. Total transverse energy is used for impact parameter selection within the central trigger condition. The central Ar + KCl reaction exhibits a forward-backward oriented momentum flux. The flux distribution of the most central Ar + Pb events is approximately isotropic in the fireball center of mass.
- Contribution of alpha cluster exchange to elastic and inelastic 16O + 20Ne scattering (1976)
- Angular distributions for elastic and inelastic transitions in 20Ne + 16O scattering have been measured at E(20Ne)=50 MeV. For the 0+, 2+, and 4+ members of the 20Ne ground-state rotational band, the angular distributions exhibit pronounced backward peaking characteristic of an alpha -cluster exchange mechanism. The analysis of the ground-state transition in the first-order elastic transfer model yields no satisfactory fit although microscopic cluster form factors and full recoil corrections are employed. A coupled channels calculation for the 0+, 2+, and 4+ transitions reveals very strong coupling effects, indicating that the coherent superposition of first-order optical model and distorted-wave Born-approximation amplitudes may not be an adequate model for these reactions. NUCLEAR REACTIONS 16O(20Ne, 16O) and 16O(20Ne, 20Ne), elastic and inelastic transfer; E=50MeV; measured sigma (Ef , theta ); optical model + DWBA, and CCBA analyses.
- Emission patterns in central and peripheral relativistic heavy-ion collisions (1980)
- Proton emission in relativistic nuclear collisions is examined for events of low and high multiplicity, corresponding to large and small impact parameters. Peripheral reactions exhibit distributions of protons in agreement with spectator-participant decay modes. Central collisions of equal-size nuclei are dominated by the formation and decay of a fireball system. Central collisions of light projectiles with heavy targets exhibit an enhancement in sideward emission which is predicted by recent hydrodynamical calculations.
- Anomalous Backward alpha Scattering (1972)
- The elastic alpha scattering to backward angles has been studied for 40,42,44,48Ca between 40.7 and 72.3 MeV. The cross sections for 40Ca are larger than those for the higher isotopes up to the highest energies. They show backward increases that disappear above 50 MeV. The enhancement factor for 40Ca over 42,44Ca varies smoothly with energy. 48Ca does also show a backward cross-section enhancement over 42,44Ca. alpha -cluster rotational bands in the 44Ti compound state, four-nucleon correlations in 40Ca, and the l-dependent optical model are discussed as approaches to understand the anomaly. The rotator model appears to agree qualitatively with the experimental data. It involves rotational bands extending at least up to J=16 in 44Ti.