Year of publication
- Article (78) (remove)
- Excitation of Rotational Bands in 40Ca Observed in the Reaction 36Ar(16O, 12C) (1972)
- Levels strongly populated in the reaction 36Ar(16O, 12C)40Ca are compared with predictions for the lowest (oblate) 4p-4h rotational band in 40Ca.
- Anomalous Backward alpha Scattering (1972)
- The elastic alpha scattering to backward angles has been studied for 40,42,44,48Ca between 40.7 and 72.3 MeV. The cross sections for 40Ca are larger than those for the higher isotopes up to the highest energies. They show backward increases that disappear above 50 MeV. The enhancement factor for 40Ca over 42,44Ca varies smoothly with energy. 48Ca does also show a backward cross-section enhancement over 42,44Ca. alpha -cluster rotational bands in the 44Ti compound state, four-nucleon correlations in 40Ca, and the l-dependent optical model are discussed as approaches to understand the anomaly. The rotator model appears to agree qualitatively with the experimental data. It involves rotational bands extending at least up to J=16 in 44Ti.
- Shell-Structure Effect on Elastic alpha Scattering (1972)
- Back-angle enhancements of elastic alpha -scattering cross sections have been observed for nuclei at the ends of the 1p, 2s-1d, and f7 / 2 shells. Strong reduction of this enhancement occurs if excess neutrons enter the next open major shell. The results are discussed in terms of intermediate alpha structure.
- Search for Fragment Emission from Nuclear Shock Waves (1975)
- Energy spectra and angular distributions have been measured of 3He and 4He fragments emitted from Ag and U targets, bombarded with 2.7-GeV protons, and 1.05-GeV/nucleon alpha particles and 16O ions. All cross sections increase dramatically with projectile mass. No narrow peaks are found in the angular distributions or in the energy spectra.
- Contribution of alpha cluster exchange to elastic and inelastic 16O + 20Ne scattering (1976)
- Angular distributions for elastic and inelastic transitions in 20Ne + 16O scattering have been measured at E(20Ne)=50 MeV. For the 0+, 2+, and 4+ members of the 20Ne ground-state rotational band, the angular distributions exhibit pronounced backward peaking characteristic of an alpha -cluster exchange mechanism. The analysis of the ground-state transition in the first-order elastic transfer model yields no satisfactory fit although microscopic cluster form factors and full recoil corrections are employed. A coupled channels calculation for the 0+, 2+, and 4+ transitions reveals very strong coupling effects, indicating that the coherent superposition of first-order optical model and distorted-wave Born-approximation amplitudes may not be an adequate model for these reactions. NUCLEAR REACTIONS 16O(20Ne, 16O) and 16O(20Ne, 20Ne), elastic and inelastic transfer; E=50MeV; measured sigma (Ef , theta ); optical model + DWBA, and CCBA analyses.
- Final-state interactions in the production of hydrogen and helium isotopes by relativistic heavy ions on uranium (1976)
- Double-differential cross sections have been measured for high-energy p, d, t, 3He, and 4He particles emitted from uranium targets irradiated with 20Ne ions at energies of 250, 400, and 2100 MeV/nucleon and 4He ions at 400 MeV/nucleon. By using the shape and yield of the proton energy spectra, the shape and yield of the d, t, 3He, and 4He energy spectra can be deduced at all measured angles for all incident projectile energies by assuming that they are formed by a coalescence of cascade nucleons, using a model analogous to that of Butler and Pearson, and Schwarzschild and Zupancic-caron.
- Nuclear fireball model for proton inclusive spectra from relativistic heavy-ion collisions (1976)
- A simple model is proposed for the emission of nucleons with velocities intermediate between those of the target and projectile. In this model, the nucleons which are mutually swept out from the target and projectile form a hot quasiequilibrated fireball which decays as an ideal gas. The overall features of the proton-inclusive spectra from 250- and 400-MeV/nucleon 20Ne ions and 400-MeV/nucleon 4He ions interacting with uranium are fitted without any adjustable parameters.
- Central collisions of relativistic heavy ions (1977)
- The energy spectra of protons and light nuclei produced by the interaction of 4He and 20Ne projectiles with Al and U targets have been investigated at incident energies ranging from 0.25 to 2.1 GeV per nucleon. Single fragment inclusive spectra have been obtained at angles between 25° and 150°, in the energy range from 30 to 150 MeV/nucleon. The multiplicity of intermediate and high energy charged particles was determined in coincidence with the measured fragments. In a separate study, fragment spectra were obtained in the evaporation energy range from 12C and 20Ne bombardment of uranium. We observe structureless, exponentially decaying spectra throughout the range of studied fragment masses. There is evidence for two major classes of fragments; one with emission at intermediate temperature from a system moving slowly in the lab frame, and the other with high temperature emission from a system propagating at a velocity intermediate between target and projectile. The high energy proton spectra are fairly well reproduced by a nuclear fireball model based on simple geometrical, kinematical, and statistical assumptions. Light cluster emission is also discussed in the framework of statistical models. NUCLEAR REACTIONS U(20Ne,X), E=250 MeV/nucl.; U(20Ne,X), U(α,X) E=400 MeV/nucl.; U(20Ne,X), Al(20Ne,X), E=2.1 GeV/nucl.; measured σ(E,θ), X=p, d, t, 3He,4He. U(20Ne,X), U(α,X), E=400 MeV/nucl.; U(20Ne,X), E=2.1 GeV/nucl.; measured σ(E, θ), Li to O. U(20Ne,X), U(12C,X), E=2.1 GeV/nucl.; measured σ(E, 90°), 4He to B. Nuclear fireballs, coalescence, thermodynamics of light nuclei production.
- Pion production in the 40Ar+40Ca reaction at 1.05 GeV/nucleon (1979)
- Pion-production cross sections have been measured for the reaction 40Ar+40Ca--> pi ++X at a laboratory energy of 1.05 GeV/nucleon. A maximum in the pi + cross section occurs at mid-rapidity, which is anomalous relative to p+p and p+nucleus reactions and compared to many other heavy-ion reactions. Calculations based on cascade and thermal models fail to fit the data.
- Emission patterns in central and peripheral relativistic heavy-ion collisions (1980)
- Proton emission in relativistic nuclear collisions is examined for events of low and high multiplicity, corresponding to large and small impact parameters. Peripheral reactions exhibit distributions of protons in agreement with spectator-participant decay modes. Central collisions of equal-size nuclei are dominated by the formation and decay of a fireball system. Central collisions of light projectiles with heavy targets exhibit an enhancement in sideward emission which is predicted by recent hydrodynamical calculations.