Year of publication
- Article (78) (remove)
- Energy dependence of multi-pion production in high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions (1980)
- Exclusive pi - and charged-particle production in collisions of Ar+KCl is studied at incident energies from 0.4 to 1.8 GeV/u. Complete disintegration of both nuclei is observed. The correlation between pi - and total charge multiplicity shows no islands of anomalous pion production. For constant numbers of proton participants the pi - multiplicity distributions are Poissons. For central collisions <n pi -> increases smoothly and to first order linearly with the c.m. energy. Disagreement with the firestreak model is found. Pacs numbers: 25.70.Hi, 24.10.Dp
- Spectra of p, d, and t from relativistic nuclear collisions (1980)
- Inclusive energy spectra of protons, deuterons, and tritons were measured with a telescope of silicon and germanium detectors with a detection range for proton energies up to 200 MeV. Fifteen sets of data were taken using projectiles ranging from protons to 40Ar on targets from 27Al to 238U at bombarding energies from 240 MeV/nucleon to 2.1 GeV/nucleon. Particular attention was paid to the absolute normalization of the cross sections. For three previously reported reactions, He fragment cross sections have been corrected and are presented. To facilitate a comparison with theory the sum of nucleonic charges emitted as protons plus composite particles was estimated and is presented as a function of fragment energy per nucleon in the interval from 15 to 200 MeV/nucleon. For low-energy fragments at forward angles the protons account for only 25% of the nucleonic charges. The equal mass 40Ar plus Ca systems were examined in the center of mass. Here at 0.4 GeV/nucleon 40Ar plus Ca the proton spectra appear to be nearly isotropic in the center of mass over the region measured. Comparisons of some data with firestreak, cascade, and fluid dynamics models indicate a failure of the first and a fair agreement with the latter two. In addition, associated fast charged particle multiplicities (where the particles had energies larger than 25 MeV/nucleon) and azimuthal correlations were measured with an 80 counter array of plastic scintillators. It was found that the associated multiplicities were a smooth function of the total kinetic energy of the projectile. NUCLEAR REACTIONS U(20Ne,X), E / A=240 MeV/nucleon; U(40Ar,X), Ca(40Ar,X), U(20Ne,X), Au(20Ne,X), Ag(20Ne,X), Al(20Ne,X), U(4He,X), Al(4He,X), E / A=390 MeV/nucleon; U(40Ar,X), Ca(40Ar,X), U(20Ne,X), U(4He,X), U(p,X), E / A=1.04 GeV/nucleon; U(20Ne,X), E / A=2.1 GeV/nucleon; measured sigma (E, theta ), X=p,d,t.
- Pion Production in the 40Ar+40Ca Reaction at 1.05 GeV/Nucleon (1979)
- Pion-production cross sections have been measured for the reaction 40Ar+40Ca--> pi ++X at a laboratory energy of 1.05 GeV/nucleon. A maximum in the pi + cross section occurs at mid-rapidity, which is anomalous relative to p+p and p+nucleus reactions and compared to many other heavy-ion reactions. Calculations based on cascade and thermal models fail to fit the data.
- Shell-Structure Effect on Elastic alpha Scattering (1972)
- Back-angle enhancements of elastic alpha -scattering cross sections have been observed for nuclei at the ends of the 1p, 2s-1d, and f7 / 2 shells. Strong reduction of this enhancement occurs if excess neutrons enter the next open major shell. The results are discussed in terms of intermediate alpha structure.
- Nuclear fireball model for proton inclusive spectra from relativistic heavy-ion collisions (1976)
- A simple model is proposed for the emission of nucleons with velocities intermediate between those of the target and projectile. In this model, the nucleons which are mutually swept out from the target and projectile form a hot quasiequilibrated fireball which decays as an ideal gas. The overall features of the proton-inclusive spectra from 250- and 400-MeV/nucleon 20Ne ions and 400-MeV/nucleon 4He ions interacting with uranium are fitted without any adjustable parameters.
- Central collisions of relativistic heavy ions (1977)
- The energy spectra of protons and light nuclei produced by the interaction of 4He and 20Ne projectiles with Al and U targets have been investigated at incident energies ranging from 0.25 to 2.1 GeV per nucleon. Single fragment inclusive spectra have been obtained at angles between 25° and 150°, in the energy range from 30 to 150 MeV/nucleon. The multiplicity of intermediate and high energy charged particles was determined in coincidence with the measured fragments. In a separate study, fragment spectra were obtained in the evaporation energy range from 12C and 20Ne bombardment of uranium. We observe structureless, exponentially decaying spectra throughout the range of studied fragment masses. There is evidence for two major classes of fragments; one with emission at intermediate temperature from a system moving slowly in the lab frame, and the other with high temperature emission from a system propagating at a velocity intermediate between target and projectile. The high energy proton spectra are fairly well reproduced by a nuclear fireball model based on simple geometrical, kinematical, and statistical assumptions. Light cluster emission is also discussed in the framework of statistical models. NUCLEAR REACTIONS U(20Ne,X), E=250 MeV/nucl.; U(20Ne,X), U(α,X) E=400 MeV/nucl.; U(20Ne,X), Al(20Ne,X), E=2.1 GeV/nucl.; measured σ(E,θ), X=p, d, t, 3He,4He. U(20Ne,X), U(α,X), E=400 MeV/nucl.; U(20Ne,X), E=2.1 GeV/nucl.; measured σ(E, θ), Li to O. U(20Ne,X), U(12C,X), E=2.1 GeV/nucl.; measured σ(E, 90°), 4He to B. Nuclear fireballs, coalescence, thermodynamics of light nuclei production.
- Study on chemical equilibrium in nucleus-nucleus collisions at relativistic energies (2004)
- We present a detailed study of chemical freeze-out in nucleus-nucleus collisions at beam energies of 11.6, 30, 40, 80 and 158A GeV. By analyzing hadronic multiplicities within the statistical hadronization approach, we have studied the chemical equilibration of the system as a function of center of mass energy and of the parameters of the source. Additionally, we have tested and compared different versions of the statistical model, with special emphasis on possible explanations of the observed strangeness hadronic phase space under-saturation.
- The ALICE TPC, a large 3-dimensional tracking device with fast readout for ultra-high multiplicity events (2010)
- The design, construction, and commissioning of the ALICE Time-Projection Chamber (TPC) is described. It is the main device for pattern recognition, tracking, and identification of charged particles in the ALICE experiment at the CERN LHC. The TPC is cylindrical in shape with a volume close to 90 m3 and is operated in a 0.5 T solenoidal magnetic field parallel to its axis. In this paper we describe in detail the design considerations for this detector for operation in the extreme multiplicity environment of central Pb–Pb collisions at LHC energy. The implementation of the resulting requirements into hardware (field cage, read-out chambers, electronics), infrastructure (gas and cooling system, laser-calibration system), and software led to many technical innovations which are described along with a presentation of all the major components of the detector, as currently realized. We also report on the performance achieved after completion of the first round of stand-alone calibration runs and demonstrate results close to those specified in the TPC Technical Design Report.