- Gamma measurements with the 4pi BaF2 detector for the FRANZ facility (2008)
- The current performance of a 4π barium fluoride gamma detector consisting of 41 modules is evaluated. It will be used to measure neutron capture events in different samples that are exposed to a neutron beam that is expected to contain up to 10^7 neutrons/(cm^2 sec). The capture cross-sections acquired in this experiment will be relevant to a multitude of different areas, for example to s-process studies, or accelerator-driven systems. The detector array was re-mounted after having been moved from Karlsruhe to Frankfurt and in the course of this process, the detector modules have been checked for their current detection properties. Every module consists of a BaF2 crystal, a photomultiplier tube connected to the crystal by sillicon oil and a voltage divider to drive the PMT, so each of them is already an individual gamma detector. Using Cobalt-60 and Caesium-137 test sources the energy resolution and - more importantly - the time resolution of every module has been determined; the results are presented in this work and compared to previous data taken at the time the detector was built initially in the mid-1980s.
- Translation and adaptation of an international questionnaire to measure usage of complementary and alternative medicine (I-CAM-G) (2012)
- BACKGROUND: The growing body of data on prevalence of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) usage means there is a need to standardize measurement on an international level. An international team has published a questionnaire0020 (I-CAM-Q), but no validation has yet been provided. The aim of the present study was to provide a German measurement instrument for CAM usage (I-CAM-G) which closely resembles the original English version, and to assess it's performance in two potential samples for measuring CAM usage. METHODS: The English I-CAM-Q questionnaire was translated into German, and adapted slightly. The resulting I-CAM-G questionnaire was then pre-tested on N=16 healthy volunteers, and 12 cognitive interviews were carried out. The questionnaire was employed in a sample of breast cancer patients (N=92, paper and pencil), and a sample from the general population (N=210, internet survey). Descriptive analyses of items and missing data, as well as results from the cognitive interviews, are presented in this paper. RESULTS: The translated questionnaire had to be adapted to be consistent with the German health care system. All items were comprehensible, whereby some items were unambiguous (e.g. CAM use yes/no, helpfulness), while others gave rise to ambiguous answers (e.g. reasons for CAM use), or high rates of missing data (e.g. number of times the CAM modality had been used during the last 3 months). 78% of the breast cancer patients and up to 85% of a sample of the general population had used some form of CAM. CONCLUSIONS: Following methodologically sound and comprehensive translation, adaptation and assessment processes using recognized translation procedures, cognitive interviews, and studying the performance of the questionnaire in two samples, we arrived at a German questionnaire for measuring CAM use which is comparable with the international (English) version. The questionnaire appropriately measures CAM use, with some items being more appropriate than others. We recommend the development of a short version.
- Transition of properties from a proton beam to a neutron beam using the 7 Li (p, n) 7 Be reaction as an example (2011)
- As a part of this thesis, a Monte Carlo-based code has been developed capable of simulating the transition of proton beam properties to neutron beam properties as it occurs in the Li-7(p, n)Be-7 reaction. It is able to reproduce not only the angle-integrated energy distributions but it is also capable of predicting the angle-dependent neutron spectra as measured at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Karlsruhe, Germany) and Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (Braunschweig, Germany). Since the code retains all three spatial dimensions as well as all three velocity dimensions, it provides very detailed information on the neutron beam. The resulting data can aid in many different aspects, for example it can be used in shielding construction, or for lithium target design. In this work, the code is used to predict the neutron beam properties expected at the Frankfurt Neutron Source at Stern-Gerlach-Zentrum (FRANZ) facility. For different proton beam energies, the neutron distribution in x/p_x, y/p_y, and z/p_z is shown as well as a Mollweide projection, which illustrates the kinematic collimation effect that limits the neutron cone opening angle to less than 180 degree.