Year of publication
- Impact of aging : sporadic, and genetic risk factors on vulnerability to apoptosis in Alzheimer's disease (2003)
- The identification of specific genetic (presenilin-1 [PS1] and amyloid precursor protein [APP] mutations) and environmental factors responsible for Alzheimer's disease (AD) has revealed evidence for a shared pathway of neuronal death. Moreover, AD-specific cell defects may be observed in many other nonneuronal cells (e.g., lymphocytes). Thus, lymphocytes may serve as a cellular system in which to study risk factors of sporadic, as well as genetic AD in vivo. The aim of our present study was to clarify whether lymphocytes bearing genetic or sporadic risk factors of AD share an increased susceptibility to cell death. Additionally we examined whether a cell typespecific vulnerability pattern was present and how normal aging, the main risk factor of sporadic AD, contributes to changes in susceptibility to cell death. Here, we report that lymphocytes affected by sporadic or genetic APP and PS1 AD risk factors share an increased vulnerability to cell death and exhibit a similar cell type-specific pattern, given that enhanced vulnerability was most strongly developed in the CD4+ T-cell subtype. In this paradigm, sporadic risk factors revealed the highest impact on cell type-specific sensitivity of CD4+ T cells to apoptosis. In contrast, normal aging results in an increased susceptibility to apoptosis of both, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells.
- Effects of EGb 761® Ginkgo biloba extract on mitochondrial function and oxidative stress (2003)
- As major sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial structures are exposed to high concentrations of ROS and may therefore be particularly susceptible to oxidative damage. Mitochondrial damage could play a pivotal role in the cell death decision. A decrease in mitochondrial energy charge and redox state, loss of transmembrane potential (depolarization), mitochondrial respiratory chain impairment, and release of substances such as calcium and cytochrome c all contribute to apoptosis. These mitochondrial abnormalities may constitute a part of the spectrum of chronic oxidative stress in Alzheimer's disease. Accumulation of amyloid beta (Abeta) in form of senile plaques is also thought to play a central role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease mediated by oxidative stress. In addition, increasing evidence shows that Abeta generates free radicals in vitro, which mediate the toxicity of this peptide. In our study, PC12 cells were used to examine the protective features of EGb 761(definition see editorial) on mitochondria stressed with hydrogen peroxide and antimycin, an inhibitor of complex III. In addition, we investigated the efficacy of EGb 761 in Abeta-induced MTT reduction in PC12 cells. Moreover, we examined the effects of EGb 761 on ROS levels and ROS-induced apoptosis in lymphocytes from aged mice after in vivo administration. Here, we will report that EGb 761 was able to protect mitochondria from the attack of hydrogen peroxide, antimycin and Abeta. Furthermore, EGb 761 reduced ROS levels and ROS-induced apoptosis in lymphocytes from aged mice treated orally with EGb 761 for 2 weeks. Our data further emphasize neuroprotective properties of EGb 761, such as protection against Abeta-toxicity, and antiapoptotic properties, which are probably due to its preventive effects on mitochondria.
- Parkinson phenotype in aged PINK1-deficient mice is accompanied by progressive mitochondrial dysfunction in absence of neurodegeneration (2009)
- Background Parkinson's disease (PD) is an adult-onset movement disorder of largely unknown etiology. We have previously shown that loss-of-function mutations of the mitochondrial protein kinase PINK1 (PTEN induced putative kinase 1) cause the recessive PARK6 variant of PD. Methodology/Principal Findings Now we generated a PINK1 deficient mouse and observed several novel phenotypes: A progressive reduction of weight and of locomotor activity selectively for spontaneous movements occurred at old age. As in PD, abnormal dopamine levels in the aged nigrostriatal projection accompanied the reduced movements. Possibly in line with the PARK6 syndrome but in contrast to sporadic PD, a reduced lifespan, dysfunction of brainstem and sympathetic nerves, visible aggregates of alpha-synuclein within Lewy bodies or nigrostriatal neurodegeneration were not present in aged PINK1-deficient mice. However, we demonstrate PINK1 mutant mice to exhibit a progressive reduction in mitochondrial preprotein import correlating with defects of core mitochondrial functions like ATP-generation and respiration. In contrast to the strong effect of PINK1 on mitochondrial dynamics in Drosophila melanogaster and in spite of reduced expression of fission factor Mtp18, we show reduced fission and increased aggregation of mitochondria only under stress in PINK1-deficient mouse neurons. Conclusion Thus, aging Pink1 -/- mice show increasing mitochondrial dysfunction resulting in impaired neural activity similar to PD, in absence of overt neuronal death.
- Schützen Statine vor Schlaganfall und Alzheimer? : Neue Therapiemöglichkeiten im Zentralnervensystem (2005)
- Statine stellen heute Medikamente der ersten Wahl bei zu hohen Cholesterin- Blutwerten dar. Denn sie hemmen die Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reduktase (HMG-CoA Reduktase), ein wichtiges Schlüsselenzym, das für die körpereigene Herstellung von Cholesterin notwendig ist. Bei der pharmakologischen Bewertung der Statine muss allerdings auch der Cholesterinstoffwechsel im Gehirn berücksichtigt werden, dem cholesterinreichsten Organ des menschlichen Körpers. Bislang existieren nur wenige Daten zu den Effekten dieser Medikamente im zentralen Nervensystem. Im Rahmen eines Leitprojekts des Zentrums für Arzneimittelforschung, -Entwicklung und Sicherheit (ZAFES) wird derzeit die Pharmakologie der Statine im Gehirn intensiv untersucht, um die therapeutischen Einsatzmöglichkeiten von Statinen im Zusammenhang mit der Therapie von Erkrankungen, wie Schlaganfall und Alzheimer-Demenz, aufzuklären und gegebenenfalls zu erweitern.
- Geistig fit durch mediterrane Kost? : Wie Menschen gesünder alt werden können (2003)
- In südlichen Gefilden wächst so manches, was in Maßen genossen dem Wohlbefinden dient. Dies gilt nicht nur für Heilkräuter und Rotwein, sondern vermutlich auch für andere für den Mittelmeerraum typische Getränke und Speisen. Auf der Suche nach diesen "natürlichen Apotheken" erfassen Wissenschaftler aus Deutschland und sechs weiteren europäischen Ländern derzeit seltene Unterarten bewährter Nutzpflanzen wie Thymian, Olive, Wein und Orange. Sie erforschen, ob die seit Jahrhunderten überlieferten Schutzund Heilungskräfte der Gewächse einer wissenschaftlichen Prüfung standhalten und worauf sie beruhen. Die Frankfurter Gruppe um Prof. Dr. Walter Müller hat dabei insbesondere Stoffe im Blick, die das Nervensystem beeinflussen. Macht mediterrane Kost wirklich geistig fit?
- Lavender oil-potent anxiolytic properties via modulating voltage dependent calcium channels (2013)
- Recent clinical data support the clinical use of oral lavender oil in patients suffering from subsyndromal anxiety. We identified the molecular mechanism of action that will alter the perception of lavender oil as a nonspecific ingredient of aromatherapy to a potent anxiolytic inhibiting voltage dependent calcium channels (VOCCs) as highly selective drug target. In contrast to previous publications where exorbitant high concentrations were used, the effects of lavender oil in behavioral, biochemical, and electrophysiological experiments were investigated in physiological concentrations in the nanomolar range, which correlate to a single dosage of 80 mg/d in humans that was used in clinical trials. We show for the first time that lavender oil bears some similarities with the established anxiolytic pregabalin. Lavender oil inhibits VOCCs in synaptosomes, primary hippocampal neurons and stably overexpressing cell lines in the same range such as pregabalin. Interestingly, Silexan does not primarily bind to P/Q type calcium channels such as pregabalin and does not interact with the binding site of pregabalin, the α2δ subunit of VOCCs. Lavender oil reduces non-selectively the calcium influx through several different types of VOCCs such as the N-type, P/Q-type and T-type VOCCs. In the hippocampus, one brain region important for anxiety disorders, we show that inhibition by lavender oil is mainly mediated via N-type and P/Q-type VOCCs. Taken together, we provide a pharmacological and molecular rationale for the clinical use of the oral application of lavender oil in patients suffering from anxiety.
- Reduced TRPC channel expression in psoriatic keratinocytes is associated with impaired differentiation and enhanced proliferation (2011)
- Psoriasis is a characteristic inflammatory and scaly skin condition with typical histopathological features including increased proliferation and hampered differentiation of keratinocytes. The activation of innate and adaptive inflammatory cellular immune responses is considered to be the main trigger factor of the epidermal changes in psoriatic skin. However, the molecular players that are involved in enhanced proliferation and impaired differentiation of psoriatic keratinocytes are only partly understood. One important factor that regulates differentiation on the cellular level is Ca2+. In normal epidermis, a Ca2+ gradient exists that is disturbed in psoriatic plaques, favoring impaired keratinocyte proliferation. Several TRPC channels such as TRPC1, TRPC4, or TRPC6 are key proteins in the regulation of high [Ca2+]ex induced differentiation. Here, we investigated if TRPC channel function is impaired in psoriasis using calcium imaging, RT-PCR, western blot analysis and immunohistochemical staining of skin biopsies. We demonstrated substantial defects in Ca2+ influx in psoriatic keratinocytes in response to high extracellular Ca2+ levels, associated with a downregulation of all TRPC channels investigated, including TRPC6 channels. As TRPC6 channel activation can partially overcome this Ca2+ entry defect, specific TRPC channel activators may be potential new drug candidates for the topical treatment of psoriasis.