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- Shell structure of superheavy nuclei in self-consistent mean-field models (1999)
- We study the extrapolation of nuclear shell structure to the region of superheavy nuclei in self-consistent mean-field models—the Skyrme-Hartree-Fock approach and the relativistic mean-field model—using a large number of parametrizations which give similar results for stable nuclei but differ in detail. Results obtained with the folded-Yukawa potential which is widely used in macroscopic-macroscopic models are shown for comparison. We focus on differences in the isospin dependence of the spin-orbit interaction and the effective mass between the models and their influence on single-particle spectra. The predictive power of the mean-field models concerning single-particle spectra is discussed for the examples of 208Pb and the spin-orbit splittings of selected neutron and proton levels in 16O, 132Sn, and 208Pb. While all relativistic models give a reasonable description of spin-orbit splittings, all Skyrme interactions show a wrong trend with mass number. The spin-orbit splitting of heavy nuclei might be overestimated by 40%–80%, which exposes a fundamental deficiency of the current nonrelativistic models. In most cases the occurrence of spherical shell closures is found to be nucleon-number dependent. Spherical doubly magic superheavy nuclei are found at 184298114, 172292120, or 184310126 depending on the parametrization. The Z=114 proton shell closure, which is related to a large spin-orbit splitting of proton 2f states, is predicted only by forces which by far overestimate the proton spin-orbit splitting in 208Pb. The Z=120 and N=172 shell closures predicted by the relativistic models and some Skyrme interactions are found to be related to a central depression of the nuclear density distribution. This effect cannot appear in macroscopic-microscopic models or semiclassical approaches like the extended Thomas-Fermi-Strutinski integral approach which have a limited freedom for the density distribution only. In summary, our findings give a strong argument for 172292120 to be the next spherical doubly magic superheavy nucleus.

- Potential energy surfaces of superheavy nuclei (1998)
- We investigate the structure of the potential energy surfaces of the superheavy nuclei 158258Fm100, 156264Hs108, 166278112, 184298114, and 172292120 within the framework of self-consistent nuclear models, i.e., the Skyrme-Hartree-Fock approach and the relativistic mean-field model. We compare results obtained with one representative parametrization of each model which is successful in describing superheavy nuclei. We find systematic changes as compared to the potential energy surfaces of heavy nuclei in the uranium region: there is no sufficiently stable fission isomer any more, the importance of triaxial configurations to lower the first barrier fades away, and asymmetric fission paths compete down to rather small deformation. Comparing the two models, it turns out that the relativistic mean-field model gives generally smaller fission barriers.

- Nuclear equation of state from the nonlinear relativistic mean field theory (1988)
- The properties of symmetric nuclear matter are investigated in the nonlinear relativistic mean field theory of nuclear matter. We consider the constraints imposed by four nuclear ground state properties on the coupling constants and on the equation of state at zero and at finite temperature. We find that the compression constant K(ρ0) as well as the temperature is irrelevant for the stiffness of the equation of state for m*(ρ0)≤0.7. The main point is that the relativistic mean field theory exhibits acausal and unphysical behavior for compressibilities below K(ρ0)=200 MeV. Every set of coupling constants with a negative quartic coupling constant c is unstable against small quantum fluctuations.

- Optimal parametrization for the relativistic mean-field model of the nucleus (1988)
- We study a relativistic model of the nucleus consisting of nucleons coupled to mesonic degrees of freedom via an effective Lagrangian whose parameters are determined by a fit to selected nuclear ground-state data. We find that the model allows a very good description of nuclear ground-state properties. Because of the relativistic nature of the model, the spin properties are uniquely fixed. We discuss variations of the parametrization and of the data which suggest that the present fit has exhausted the limits of the mean-field approximation, and discuss extensions which go beyond the mean field.

- Three-component fluid dynamics for the description of energetic heavy-ion reactions (1982)
- The nucleons taking part in heavy ion reaction are considered as a three-component fluid. The first and second components correspond to the nucleons of the target and the projectile, while the thermalized nucleons produced in the course of the collision belong to the third component. Making use of the Boltzmann equation, hydrodynamical equations are derived. An equation of state for anisotropic nuclear matter obtained from a field theoretical model in mean field approximation is applied in a one dimensional version of the three-component fluid model. The speed of thermalization is analyzed and compared to the results of cascade and kinetic models. NUCLEAR REACTIONS Relativistic heavy-ion reactions, hydrodynamic description.

- Different deformations of proton and neutron distributions in nuclei (1981)
- Different collective deformation coordinates for neutrons and protons are introduced to allow for both stretching and γ transitions consistent with experiments. The rotational actinide nuclei 234-238U and 232Th are successfully analyzed in this model. NUCLEAR STRUCTURE 232Th, 234-238U calculated B (E2) values, collective model.

- Collective effects on mass asymmetry in fission (1976)
- the development of the mass asymmetry vibrations in the final stages of the fission process is studied with an approximate treatment of the coupling to relative motion. A parametrized friction is introduced and its effects are studied. Numerical results are presented for 236U, together with estimates for the kinetic energy of the fragments. RADIOACTIVITY, FISSION 236U; calculated mass distribution, kinetic energy distribution. Collective dynamics, shell correction method, cranking model.

- Theory of fission-mass distributions demonstrated for 226Ra, 236U, 258Fm (1973)
- With the mass asymmetry described by the dynamical collective fragmentation coordinate ξ, and with use of the asymmetric two-center shell model, the fission mass distributions for 226Ra, 236U, and 258Fm (which are typical representatives for triple-, double-, and single-humped distributions) are explained.

- Variable masses in fission and heavy-ion collisions (1972)
- With the use of the cranking formula, the coordinate-dependent mass parameters of the kinetic-energy operator in fission processes and heavy-ion collisions are calculated in the two-center oscillator model. It is shown that the reduced mass and also the classical moment of inertia are obtained for large separations of the fragments. For small separations, however, the mass parameter for the motion of the centers of mass of the fragments is larger than the reduced mass by an order of magnitude.

- Importance of nuclear viscosity and thermal conductivity and the analysis of the bounce-off effect in high energy heavy ion collisions (1981)
- We present an analysis of high energy heavy ion collisions at intermediate impact parameters, using a two-dimensional fluid-dynamical model including shear and bulk viscosity, heat conduction, a realistic treatment of the nuclear binding, and an analysis of the final thermal emission of free nucleons. We find large collective momentum transfer to projectile and target residues (the highly inelastic bounce-off effect) and explosion of the hot compressed shock zones formed during the impact. As the calculated azimuthal dependence of energy spectra and angular distributions of emitted nucleons depends strongly on the coefficients of viscosity and thermal conductivity, future exclusive measurements may allow for an experimental determination of these transport coefficients. The importance of 4π measurements with full azimuthal information is pointed out.