Year of publication
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- Channeling process in a bent crystal (1996)
- We have investigated the channeling process of charged particles in a bent crystal. Invoking simple assumptions we derive a criterion, which determines whether channeling occurs or not. We obtain the same criterion using the Dirac equation. It is shown that the centrifugal force acting on the particle in the bent crystal significantly alters the effective transverse potential. The cases of axial and planar channeling are considered. The channeling probability and the dechanneling probability due to tunneling of the particle under the barrier in the effective transverse potential are estimated. These probabilities depend on the specific scaling parameter characterizing the process. Using the quasiclassical theory of synchrotron radiation we have calculated the contribution to the radiation spectrum, which arises due to the curvature of the channel. This contribution becomes significant to TeV electrons or positrons. Some practical consequences of our results are briefly discussed.
- Two-dimensional nuclear inertia : analytical relationships (1995)
- The components of the nuclear inertia tensor, functions of the separation distance R and of the radius of the light fragment R2, BRR(R,R2), BRR2(R,R2), and BR2R2(R,R2) are calculated within the Werner-Wheeler approximation, by using the parametrization of two intersected symmetric or asymmetric spheres. Analytical relationships are derived. When projected to a path R2=R2(R), the reduced mass is obtained at the touching point. The two one-dimensional parametrizations with R2=const, and the volume V2=const previously studied, are found to be particular cases of the present more general approach. Illustrations for the cold fission, cluster radioactivity, and α decay of 252Cf are given.
- Cold-fission yields at effective excitation energies (1995)
- The experimental cold-fission yields for the system 233U(nth, f) are analyzed as function of the effective total excitation energy (TXE). The nuclear level density effect is taken into account at higher TXE, in order to benefit by the lower experimental data uncertainty as well as to avoid the quantitative account of the level densities close to fragment ground states. In this way the odd-even staggering which appears in the yields extrapolated at zero excitation energy by using the level densities, vanishes. We conclude that the cold nuclear fragmentation theory including the dynamical model describes well the experimental data.
- Quantum-mechanical treatment of high-energy channeling radiation (1995)
- An alternative theoretical description of axial electron channeling in the multi-GeV region has been developed. We solve a kinetic equation to evaluate an electron distribution function in axially oriented single crystals. Based on the single-string model, the required matrix elements for radiation and scattering by lattice vibrations are calculated employing solutions of the Dirac equation in cylindrical coordinates. Results obtained for 150-GeV electrons propagating along the 〈110〉 axis of germanium are in good agreement with experimental observations.
- Hot nuclear matter in the quark meson coupling model (1997)
- We study here hot nuclear matter in the quark meson coupling model which incorporates explicitly quark degrees of freedom, with quarks coupled to scalar and vector mesons. The equation of state of nuclear matter including the composite nature of the nucleons is calculated at finite temperatures. The calculations are done taking into account the medium-dependent bag constant. Nucleon properties at finite temperatures as calculated here are found to be appreciably different from the value at T=0.
- Transition to delta matter from hot, dense nuclear matter within a relativistic mean field formulation of the nonlinear sigma and omega model (1997)
- An investigation of the transition to delta matter is performed based on a relativistic mean field formulation of the nonlinear sigma and omega model. We demonstrate that in addition to the Delta-meson coupling, the occurrence of the baryon resonance isomer also depends on the nucleon-meson coupling. Our results show that for the favored phenomenological value of m* and K, the Delta isomer exists at baryon density ~ 2–3 p0 if beta=1.31 is adopted. For universal coupling of the nucleon and Delta, the Delta density at baryon density ~ 2–3 p0 and temperature ~ 0.4–0.5 fm-1 is about normal nuclear matter density, which is in accord with a recent experimental finding.
- Structure of the vacuum in nuclear matter: a nonperturbative approach (1997)
- We compute the vacuum polarization correction to the binding energy of nuclear matter in the Walecka model using a nonperturbative approach. We first study such a contribution as arising from a ground-state structure with baryon-antibaryon condensates. This yields the same results as obtained through the relativistic Hartree approximation of summing tadpole diagrams for the baryon propagator. Such a vacuum is then generalized to include quantum effects from meson fields through scalar-meson condensates which amounts to summing over a class of multiloop diagrams. The method is applied to study properties of nuclear matter and leads to a softer equation of state giving a lower value of the incompressibility than would be reached without quantum effects. The density-dependent effective sigma mass is also calculated including such vacuum polarization effects.
- Self-energy correction to the hyperfine structure splitting of hydrogenlike atoms (1996)
- A first testing ground for QED in the combined presence of a strong Coulomb field and a strong magnetic field is provided by the precise measurement of the hyperfine structure splitting of hydrogenlike 209Bi. We present a complete calculation of the one-loop self-energy correction to the first-order hyperfine interaction for various nuclear charges. In the low-Z regime we almost perfectly agree with the Z alpha expansion, but for medium and high Z there is a substantial deviation.
- Cold fission as cluster decay with dissipation (1996)
- For cold (neutronless) fission we consider an analytical model of quantum tunneling with dissipation through a barrier U(q) evaluated with a M3Y nucleon-nucleon force. We calculate the tunneling spectrum, i.e., the fission rate as a function of the total kinetic energy of the fragments. The theoretical results are compared with the experimental data obtained for the fine structure of two cold fission modes of 252Cf: 148Ba+104Mo and 146Ba+106Mo. Taking into account the dissipative coupling of the potential function U(q) and of the momentum p with all the other neglected coordinates, we obtain a remarkable agreement with the experimental data. We conclude that the cold fission process is a spontaneous decay with a spectrum determined by the shape of the barrier and an amplitude depending on the strength of the dissipative coupling.
- Shell structure of superheavy nuclei in self-consistent mean-field models (1999)
- We study the extrapolation of nuclear shell structure to the region of superheavy nuclei in self-consistent mean-field models—the Skyrme-Hartree-Fock approach and the relativistic mean-field model—using a large number of parametrizations which give similar results for stable nuclei but differ in detail. Results obtained with the folded-Yukawa potential which is widely used in macroscopic-macroscopic models are shown for comparison. We focus on differences in the isospin dependence of the spin-orbit interaction and the effective mass between the models and their influence on single-particle spectra. The predictive power of the mean-field models concerning single-particle spectra is discussed for the examples of 208Pb and the spin-orbit splittings of selected neutron and proton levels in 16O, 132Sn, and 208Pb. While all relativistic models give a reasonable description of spin-orbit splittings, all Skyrme interactions show a wrong trend with mass number. The spin-orbit splitting of heavy nuclei might be overestimated by 40%–80%, which exposes a fundamental deficiency of the current nonrelativistic models. In most cases the occurrence of spherical shell closures is found to be nucleon-number dependent. Spherical doubly magic superheavy nuclei are found at 184298114, 172292120, or 184310126 depending on the parametrization. The Z=114 proton shell closure, which is related to a large spin-orbit splitting of proton 2f states, is predicted only by forces which by far overestimate the proton spin-orbit splitting in 208Pb. The Z=120 and N=172 shell closures predicted by the relativistic models and some Skyrme interactions are found to be related to a central depression of the nuclear density distribution. This effect cannot appear in macroscopic-microscopic models or semiclassical approaches like the extended Thomas-Fermi-Strutinski integral approach which have a limited freedom for the density distribution only. In summary, our findings give a strong argument for 172292120 to be the next spherical doubly magic superheavy nucleus.