- Quark Gluon Plasma (8) (remove)
- The directed flow maximum near c(s) = 0 (2000)
- We investigate the excitation function of quark-gluon plasma formation and of directed in-plane flow of nucleons in the energy range of the BNLAGS and for the Ekin Lab = 40A GeV Pb+Pb collisions performed recently at the CERN-SPS. We employ the three-fluid model with dynamical unification of kinetically equilibrated fluid elements. Within our model with first-order phase transition at high density, droplets of QGP coexisting with hadronic matter are produced already at BNL-AGS energies, Ekin Lab C 10A GeV. A substantial decrease of the isentropic velocity of sound, however, requires higher energies, Ekin Lab C 40A GeV. We show the e ect on the flow of nucleons in the reaction plane. According to our model calculations, kinematic requirements and EoS effects work hand-in-hand at Ekin Lab = 40A GeV to allow the observation of the dropping velocity of sound via an increase of the directed flow around midrapidity as compared to top BNL-AGS energy.
- Critical review of quark gluon plasma signals (2000)
- Compelling evidence for a new form of matter has been claimed to be formed in Pb+Pb collisions at SPS. We critically review two suggested signatures for this new state of matter: First the suppression of the J/psi , which should be strongly suppressed in the QGP by two different mechanisms, the color-screening  and the QCD-photoe ect . Secondly the measured particle, in particular strange hadronic, ratios might signal the freeze-out from a quark-gluon phase.
- Critical review of quark gluon plasma signatures (1999)
- Noneequilibrium models (three-fluid hydrodynamics and UrQMD) use to discuss the uniqueness of often proposed experimental signatures for quark matter formation in relativistic heavy ion collisions. It is demonstrated that these two models - although they do treat the most interesting early phase of the collisions quite differently(thermalizing QGP vs. coherent color fields with virtual particles) - both yields a reasonable agreement with a large variety of the available heavy ion data.
- Analysis of reaction dynamics at RHIC in a combined parton/hadron transport approach (1999)
- We introduce a transport approach which combines partonic and hadronic degrees of freedom on an equal footing and discuss the resulting reaction dynamics. The initial parton dynamics is modeled in the framework of the parton cascade model, hadronization is performed via a cluster hadronization model and configuration space coalescence, and the hadronic phase is described by a microscopic hadronic transport approach. The resulting reaction dynamics indicates a strong influence of hadronic rescattering on the space-time pattern of hadronic freeze-out and on the shape of transverse mass spectra. Freeze-out times and transverse radii increase by factors of 2 3 depending on the hadron species.
- Excitation function of energy density and partonic degrees of freedom in relativistic heavy ion collisions (1998)
- We estimate the energy density epsilon pile-up at mid-rapidity in central Pb+Pb collisions from 2 200 GeV/nucleon. epsilon is decomposed into hadronic and partonic contributions. A detailed analysis of the collision dynamics in the framework of a microscopic transport model shows the importance of partonic degrees of freedom and rescattering of leading (di)quarks in the early phase of the reaction for Elab 30 GeV/nucleon. In Pb+Pb collisions at 160 GeV/nucleon the energy density reaches up to 4 GeV/fm3, 95% of which are contained in partonic degrees of freedom.
- Supercooling of rapidly expanding quark-gluon plasma (1998)
- We reexamine the scenario of homogeneous nucleation of the quark-gluon plasma produced in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. A generalization of the standard nucleation theory to rapidly expanding system is proposed. The nucleation rate is derived via the new scaling parameter Z. It is shown that the size distribution of hadronic clusters plays an important role in the dynamics of the phase transition. The longitudinally expanding system is supercooled to about 3 6%, then it is reheated, and the hadronization is completed within 6 10 fm/c, i.e. 5 10 times faster than it was estimated earlier, in a strongly nonequilibrium way. PACS: 12.38.Mh; 12.39.Ba; 25.75.-q; 64.60.Qb
- Homogeneous nucleation of quark gluon plasma, finite size effects and longlived metastable objects (1998)
- The general formalism of homogeneous nucleation theory is applied to study the hadronization pattern of the ultra-relativistic quark-gluon plasma (QGP) undergoing a first order phase transition. A coalescence model is proposed to describe the evolution dynamics of hadronic clusters produced in the nucle- ation process. The size distribution of the nucleated clusters is important for the description of the plasma conversion. The model is most sensitive to the initial conditions of the QGP thermalization, time evolution of the energy den- sity, and the interfacial energy of the plasma hadronic matter interface. The rapidly expanding QGP is first supercooled by about T = T Tc = 4 6%. Then it reheats again up to the critical temperature Tc. Finally it breaks up into hadronic clusters and small droplets of plasma. This fast dynamics occurs within the first 5 10 fm/c. The finite size e ects and fluctuations near the critical temperature are studied. It is shown that a drop of longitudinally expanding QGP of the transverse radius below 4.5 fm can display a long-lived metastability. However, both in the rapid and in the delayed hadronization scenario, the bulk pion yield is emitted by sources as large as 3 4.5 fm. This may be detected experimentally both by a HBT interferometry signal and by the analysis of the rapidity distributions of particles in narrow pT -intervals at small |pT | on an event-by-event basis. PACS numbers: 12.38.Mh, 24.10.Pa, 25.75.-q, 64.60.Qb
- Signatures of quark gluon plasma formation in high-energy heavy ion collisions : a critical review (1998)
- Ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions offer the unique opportunity to probe highly excited dense nuclear matter under controlled laboratory conditions. The compelling driving force for such studies is the expectation that an entirely new form of matter may be created from such reactions. That form of matter, called the Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP), is the QCD analogue of the plasma phase of ordinary atomic matter. However, unlike such ordinary plasmas, the deconfined quanta of a QGP are not directly observable because of the fundamental confining property of the physical QCD vacuum. What is observable are hadronic and leptonic residues of the transient QGP state. There is a large variety of such individual probes.