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#### Year of publication

- 1997 (19) (remove)

#### Keywords

- Kollisionen schwerer Ionen (9)
- equation of state (5)
- heavy ion colliders (3)
- Lagrangian (2)
- Quantenchromodynamik (2)
- Quantum Chromodynamics (2)
- Quark-Gluon-Plasma (2)
- Zustandsgleichung (2)
- Zustandsgleichung (2)
- Zustandsgleichungen (2)

- Are we close to the QGP? - Hadrochemical vs. microscopic analysis of particle production in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions (1997)
- Ratios of hadronic abundances are analyzed for pp and nucleus-nucleus collisions at sqrt(s)=20 GeV using the microscopic transport model UrQMD. Secondary interactions significantly change the primordial hadronic cocktail of the system. A comparison to data shows a strong dependence on rapidity. Without assuming thermal and chemical equilibrium, predicted hadron yields and ratios agree with many of the data, the few observed discrepancies are discussed.

- Microscopic analysis of thermodynamic parameters from 160 MeV/n - 160 GeV/n (1997)
- Microscopic calculations of central collisions between heavy nuclei are used to study fragment production and the creation of collective flow. It is shown that the final phase space distributions are compatible with the expectations from a thermally equilibrated source, which in addition exhibits a collective transverse expansion. However, the microscopic analyses of the transient states in the reaction stages of highest density and during the expansion show that the system does not reach global equilibrium. Even if a considerable amount of equilibration is assumed, the connection of the measurable final state to the macroscopic parameters, e.g. the temperature, of the transient ''equilibrium'' state remains ambiguous.

- "Soft'' transverse expansion and flow in a multi-fluid model without phase transition (1997)
- Abstract: We study transverse expansion and directed flow in Au(11AGeV)Au reactions within a multi-fluid dynamical model. Although we do not employ an equation of state (EoS) with a first order phase transition, we find a slow increase of the transverse velocities of the nucleons with time. A similar behaviour can be observed for the directed nucleon flow. This is due to non-equilibrium e ects which also lead to less and slower conversion of longitudinal into transverse momentum. We also show that the proton rapidity distribution at CERN energies, as calculated within this model, agrees well with the preliminary NA44-data.

- Nonequilibrium fluid-dynamics in the early stage of ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions (1997)
- To describe ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions we construct a three-fluid hydrodynamical model. In contrast to one-fluid hydrodynamics, it accounts for the finite stopping power of nuclear matter, i.e. for nonequilibrium e ects in the early stage of the reaction. Within this model, we study baryon dynamics in the BNL-AGS energy range. For the system Au+Au we find that kinetic equilibrium between projectile and target nucleons is established only after a time teq CM H 5 fm/c C 2RAu/³CM. Observables which are sensitive to the early stage of the collision (like e.g. nucleon flow) therefore di er considerably from those calculated in the one-fluid model.

- "Pressure equilibration" in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions (1997)
- We study the time scale for pressure equilibration in heavy ion collisions at AGS energies within the three-fluid hydrodynamical model and a microscopic cascade model (UrQMD). We find that kinetic equilibrium is reached in both models after a time of 5 fm/c (center-of-mass time). Thus, observables which are sensitive to the early stage of the reaction differ considerably from the expectations within the instant thermalization scenario (one-fluid hydrodynamical model).

- Direct photons in Pb+Pb at CERN-SPS from microscopic transport theory (1997)
- Direct photon production in central Pb+Pb collisions at CERN-SPS energy is calculated within the relativistic microscopic transport model UrQMD, and within distinctly di erent versions of relativistic hydrodynamics. We find that in UrQMD the local momentum distributions of the secondaries are strongly elongated along the beam axis initially. Therefore, the preequilibrium contribution dominates the photon spectrum at transverse momenta above H 1.5 GeV. The hydrodynamics prediction of a strong correlation between the temperature and radial expansion velocities on the one hand and the slope of the transverse momentum distribution of direct photons on the other hand thus is not recovered in UrQMD. The rapidity distribution of direct photons in UrQMD reveals that the initial conditions for the longitudinal expansion of the photon source (the meson fluid ) resemble rather boostinvariance than Landau-like flow.

- Probes for the early reaction dynamics of heavy ion collisions at AGS and SPS (1997)
- We discuss the early evolution of ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions within a multi- fluid dynamical model. In particular, we show that due to the finite mean-free path of the particles compression shock waves are smeared out considerably as compared to the one-fluid limit. Also, the maximal energy density of the baryons is much lower. We discuss the time scale of kinetic equilibration of the baryons in the central region and its relevance for directed flow. Finally, thermal emission of direct photons from the fluid of produced particles is calculated within the three-fluid model and two other simple expansion models. It is shown that the transverse momentum and rapidity spectra of photons give clue to the cooling law and the early rapidity distribution of the photon source.

- Chemical freezeout in relativistic A+A collisions: is it close to the QGP? (1997)
- Preliminary experimental data for particle number ratios in the collisions of Au+Au at the BNL AGS (11A GeV/c) and Pb+Pb at the CERN SPS (160A GeV/c) are analyzed in a thermodynamically consistent hadron gas model with excluded volume. Large values of temperature, T = 140 185 MeV, and baryonic chemical potential, µb = 590 270 MeV, close to the boundary of the quark-gluon plasma phase are found from fitting the data. This seems to indicate that the energy density at the chemical freezeout is tremendous which would be indeed the case for the point-like hadrons. However, a self-consistent treatment of the van der Waals excluded volume reveals much smaller energy densities which are very far below a lowest limit estimate of the quark-gluon plasma energy density. PACS number(s): 25.75.-q, 24.10.Pa

- Modelling the many-body dynamics of heavy ion collisions (1997)
- Basic problems of the semiclassical microscopic modelling of strongly interacting systems are discussed within the framework of Quantum Molecular Dynamics (QMD). This model allows to study the influence of several types of nucleonic interactions on a large variety of observables and phenomena occur- ring in heavy ion collisions at relativistic energies. It is shown that the same predictions can be obtained with several numerically completely di erent and independently written programs as far as the same model parameters are employed and the same basic approximations are made. Many observ- ables are robust against variations of the details of the model assumptions used. Some of the physical results, however, depend also on rather technical parameters like the preparation of the initial configuration in phase space. This crucial problem is connected with the description of the ground state of single nuclei, which di ers among the various approaches. An outlook to an improved molecular dynamics scheme for heavy ion collisions is given.

- Transition to delta matter from hot, dense nuclear matter within a relativistic mean field formulation of the nonlinear sigma and omega model (1997)
- An investigation of the transition to delta matter is performed based on a relativistic mean field formulation of the nonlinear sigma and omega model. We demonstrate that in addition to the Delta-meson coupling, the occurrence of the baryon resonance isomer also depends on the nucleon-meson coupling. Our results show that for the favored phenomenological value of m* and K, the Delta isomer exists at baryon density ~ 2–3 p0 if beta=1.31 is adopted. For universal coupling of the nucleon and Delta, the Delta density at baryon density ~ 2–3 p0 and temperature ~ 0.4–0.5 fm-1 is about normal nuclear matter density, which is in accord with a recent experimental finding.