Year of publication
- Physik (341) (remove)
- Potential energy surfaces of superheavy nuclei (1998)
- We investigate the structure of the potential energy surfaces of the superheavy nuclei 158258Fm100, 156264Hs108, 166278112, 184298114, and 172292120 within the framework of self-consistent nuclear models, i.e., the Skyrme-Hartree-Fock approach and the relativistic mean-field model. We compare results obtained with one representative parametrization of each model which is successful in describing superheavy nuclei. We find systematic changes as compared to the potential energy surfaces of heavy nuclei in the uranium region: there is no sufficiently stable fission isomer any more, the importance of triaxial configurations to lower the first barrier fades away, and asymmetric fission paths compete down to rather small deformation. Comparing the two models, it turns out that the relativistic mean-field model gives generally smaller fission barriers.
- Role of the higher static deformations of fragments in the cold binary fission of 252Cf (1998)
- We study the binary cold fission of 252Cf in the frame of a cluster model where the fragments are born to their respective ground states and interact via a double-folded potential with deformation effects taken into account up to multipolarity lambda=4. The preformation factors were neglected. In the case when the fragments are assumed to be spherical or with ground-state quadrupole deformation, the Q-value principle dictates the occurrence of a narrow region around the double magic 132Sn, like in the case of cluster radioactivity. When the hexadecupole deformation is turned on, an entire mass region of cold fission in the range 138–156 for the heavy fragment arise, in agreement with the experimental observations. This fact suggests that in the above-mentioned mass region, contrary to the usual cluster radioactivity where the daughter nucleus is always a neutron/proton (or both) closed shell or nearly closed shell spherical nucleus, the clusterization mechanism seems to be strongly influenced by the hexadecupole deformations rather than the Q value.
- 12C emission from 114Ba and nuclear properties (1995)
- We investigate the influence of nuclear masses, radii, and interaction potentials on 12C radioactivity of 114the best representative of a new island of cluster emitters leading to daughter nuclei around the doubly magic 100Sn. Three different models are considered: one derived by Blendowske, Fliessbach, and Walliser (BFW) from the many-body theory of alpha decay, as well as our analytical (ASAF) and numerical (NuSAF) superasymmetric fission models. A Q value larger by 1 MeV or an ASAF potential barrier reduced by 3% are producing a half-life shorter by 2 orders of magnitude. A similar effect can be obtained within BFW and NuSAF by a decrease of the action integral with less than 10% and 5%, respectively. By increasing the radius constant within ASAF or BFW models by 10%, the half-life becomes shorter by 3 orders of magnitude.
- Photon-photon interaction in axial channeling (1994)
- We investigate the possibility that high-energy photons are channeled, when passing through an oriented single crystal, due to Delbrück scattering. For this purpose the exact electron propagator for the single-string model is constructed. Starting from a separation of variables, we solve the Dirac equation for a cylindrical electrostatic potential. The propagator for such external fields is constructed from solutions of the radial Dirac equation. This propagator is applied to a calculation of the S matrix for Delbrück scattering. We specify the conditions under which photon channeling takes place. Unfortunately these conditions are only matched for a very small fraction of those photons being produced by channeled electrons.
- Induced decay of composite JPC=1++ particles in atomic Coulomb fields (1994)
- The electron-positron pairs observed in heavy-ion collisions at Gesellschaft für Schwerionen-forschung Darmstadt mbH have been interpreted as the decay products of yet unknown particles with masses around 1.8 MeV. The negative results of resonant Bhabha scattering experiments, however, do not support such an interpretation. Therefore we focus on a more complex decay scenario, where the e+e- lines result from a two-collision process. We discuss the induced decay of a metastable 1++ state into e+e- pairs. For most realizations of a 1++ state such a decay in leading order can only take place in the Coulomb field of a target atom. This fact has the attractive consequence that for such a state the Bhabha bounds are no longer valid. However, the absolute value of the e+e- production cross section turns out to be unacceptably small.
- Vacuum-polarization contribution to the hyperfine-structure splitting of hydrogenlike atoms (1994)
- A calculation of the vacuum-polarization contribution to the hyperfine splitting for hydrogenlike atoms is presented. The extended nuclear charge distribution is taken into account. For the experimentally interesting case 209Bi82+ we predict a delta-lambda- -1.6 nm shift for the transition wavelength of the ground-state hyperfine splitting.
- Periodic structure in nuclear matter (1992)
- The properties of nuclear matter are studied in the framework of quantum hadrodynamics. Assuming an ω-meson field, periodic in space, a self-consistent set of equations is derived in the mean-field approximation for the description of nucleons interacting via σ-meson and ω-meson fields. Solutions of these self-consistent equations have been found: The baryon density is constant in space, however, the baryon current density is periodic. This high density phase of nuclear matter can be produced by anisotropic external pressure, occurring, e.g., in relativistic heavy ion reactions. The self-consistent fields developing beyond the instability limit have a special screw symmetry. In the presence of such an ω field, the energy spectrum of the relativistic nucleons exhibits allowed and forbidden bands, similar to the energy spectrum of the electrons in solids.
- Formation of heavy quarks in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions (1992)
- We investigate the production of heavy quarks in continuum and bound states in nuclear collisions. Creation rates for free bb̅ and tt̅ quark pairs and for bottomonium and toponium in the ground state are computed at energies of the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), and Superconducting Super Collider. Central and peripheral heavy-ion collisions are discussed. For top-quark creation we assumed a mass range of 90≤mt≤250 GeV. The creation rate for top quarks in peripheral collisions is estimated to be by a factor 40 to 130 smaller compared with corresponding central collisions. For mt=130 GeV we calculated a creation rate of about 4760 top-quark pairs per day at the LHC (3.5 TeV/nucleon) for Pb-Pb collisions.
- Flavor distributions in the nucleons: SU(2) sea asymmetry or isospin symmetry breaking? (1993)
- The Gottfried sum-rule violation reported by the New Muon Collaboration was interpreted as an indication for a flavor asymmetry of the sea quark in the nucleon. We investigate the alternative possibility that isospin symmetry between the proton and the neutron is breaking. We examine systematically the consequences of this possibility for several processes, namely, neutrino deep inelastic scattering, the charged pion Drell-Yan process, the proton Drell-Yan process, and semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering, and conclude that a decision between the two alternative explanations is possible.
- Multiplicity distribution of electron-positron pairs created by strong external fields (1992)
- We discuss the multiplicity distribution of electron-positron pairs created in the strong electromagnetic fields of ultrarelativistic heavy-ion transits. Based on nonperturbative expressions for the N-pair creation amplitudes, the Poisson distribution is derived by neglecting interference terms. The source of unitarity violation is identified in the vacuum-to-vacuum amplitude, and a perturbative expression for the mean number of pairs is given.