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- heavy ion collisions (22) (remove)

- Antibaryons in massive heavy ion reactions : importance of potentials (1995)
- In the framework of RQMD we investigate antiproton observables in massive heavy ion collisions at AGS energies and compare to preliminary results of the E878 collaboration. We focus here on the considerable influence of the real part of an antinucleon nucleus optical potential on the ¯p momentum spectra. Pacs-numbers: 14.20 Dh, 25.70.-z

- Nucleus-nucleus collisions at highest energies (1996)
- The microscopic phasespace approach URQMD is used to investigate the stopping power and particle production in heavy systems at SPS and RHIC energies. We find no gap in the baryon rapidity distribution even at RHIC. For CERN energies URQMD shows a pile up of baryons and a supression of multi-nucleon clusters at midrapidity.

- Neural networks for impact parameter determination (1996)
- Abstract: An accurate impact parameter determination in a heavy ion collision is crucial for almost all further analysis. The capabilities of an artificial neural network are investigated to that respect. A novel input generation for the network is proposed, namely the transverse and longitudinal momentum distribution of all outgoing (or actually detectable) particles. The neural network approach yields an improvement in performance of a factor of two as compared to classical techniques. To achieve this improvement simple network architectures and a 5 × 5 input grid in (pt, pz) space are suffcient.

- Particle production by time-dependent meson fields in relativistic heavy ion-collisions (1996)
- According to the Walecka mean field theory of nuclear interaction the collective mutual deceleration of the colliding nuclei gives rise to the bremsstrahlung of real and virtual ! mesons. It is shown that decays of these mesons may give a noticeable contribution to the observed yields of the baryon antibaryon pairs, dileptons and pions. Excitation functions and rapidity distributions of particles produced by this mechanism are calculated under some simplifying assumptions about the space time variation of meson fields in nuclear collisions. The calculated multiplicities of coherently produced particles grow fast with the bombarding energy, reaching a saturation above the RHIC bombarding energy. In the case of central Au+Au collisions the bremsstrahlung mechanism becomes comparable with particle production in incoherent hadron hadron collisions above the AGS energies. The rapidity spectra of antibaryons and pions exhibit a characteristic two hump structure which is a consequence of incomplete projectile target stopping at the initial stage of the reaction. The predicted distribution of e+e pairs has a strong peak at invariant masses Me+e < 0.5 GeV.

- Relativistic transport theory of N, Delta and N* (1440) interacting through sigma, omega and pi mesons. (1997)
- A self-consistent relativistic integral-di erential equation of the Boltzmann- Uehling-Uhlenbeck-type for the N*(1440) resonance is developed based on an effective Lagrangian of baryons interacting through mesons. The closed time-path Green s function technique and semi-classical, quasi-particle and Born approxima- tions are employed in the derivation. The non-equilibrium RBUU-type equation for the N*(1440) is consistent with that of nucleon s and delta s which we derived before. Thus, we obtain a set of coupled equations for the N,Delta and N*(1440) distribution functions. All the N (1440)-relevant in-medium two-body scattering cross sections within the N,Delta and N*(1440) system are derived from the same effective Lagrangian in addition to the mean field and presented analytically, which can be directly used in the study of relativistic heavy-ion collisions. The theoreticalprediction of the free pp - pp* (1440) cross section is in good agreement with the experimental data. We calculate the in-medium N+N - N+N* , N* +N - N+N and N*+N - N* +N cross sections in cold nuclear matter up to twice the nuclear matter density. The influence of different choices of the N* N* coupling strengths, which can not be obtained through fitting certain experimental data, are discussed. The results show that the density dependence of predicted in-medium cross sections are sensitive to the N* N* coupling strengths used. An evident density dependence will appear when a large scalar coupling strength of g^(sigma) N*N* is assumed. PACS number(s): 24.10.Cn; 25.70.-z; 21.65.+f

- Intermediate mass dileptons from secondary Drell-Yan processes (1998)
- Recent reports on enhancements of intermediate and hight mass muon pairs producedin heavy ion collisions have attracted much attention.

- Excitation function of energy density and partonic degrees of freedom in relativistic heavy ion collisions (1998)
- We estimate the energy density epsilon pile-up at mid-rapidity in central Pb+Pb collisions from 2 200 GeV/nucleon. epsilon is decomposed into hadronic and partonic contributions. A detailed analysis of the collision dynamics in the framework of a microscopic transport model shows the importance of partonic degrees of freedom and rescattering of leading (di)quarks in the early phase of the reaction for Elab 30 GeV/nucleon. In Pb+Pb collisions at 160 GeV/nucleon the energy density reaches up to 4 GeV/fm3, 95% of which are contained in partonic degrees of freedom.

- Charmonium suppression from purely geometrical effects (1998)
- The extend to which geometrical effects contribute to the production and suppression of the J/psi and qq minijet pairs in general is investigated for high energy heavy ion collisions at SPS, RHIC and LHC energies. For the energy range under investigation, the geometrical e ects referred to are shadowing and anti-shadowing, respectively. Due to those effects, the parton distributions in nuclei deviate from the naive extrapolation from the free nucleon result; fA 6= AfN. The strength of the shadowing/anti-shadowing e ect increases with the mass number. Therefore it is interesting to see the di erence between cross sections for e.g. S+U vs. Pb+Pb at SPS. The recent NA50 results for the survival probability of produced J/psi s has attracted great attention and are often interpreted as a signature of a quark gluon plasma. This publication will present a fresh look on hard QCD e ects for the charmonium production level. It is shown that the apparent suppression of J/psi s must also be linked to the production process. Due to the uncertainty in the shadowing of gluons the suppression of charmonium states might not give reli- able information on a created plasma phase at the collider energies soon available. The consequences of shadowing e ects for the xF distribution of J/psi s at s = 20 GeV, s = 200 GeV and s = 6 TeV are calculated for some relevant combinations of nuclei, as well as the pT distribution of minijets at midrapidity for Nf = 4 in the final state.

- Dissociation of expanding c anti-c states in heavy ion collisions (1999)
- We study J/psi suppression in AB collisions assuming that the charmonium states evolve from small, color transparent configurations. Their interaction with nucleons and nonequilibrated, secondary hadrons is simulated using the microscopic model UrQMD. The Drell-Yan lepton pair yield and the J/psi Drell-Yan ratio are calculated as a function of the neutral transverse energy in Pb+Pb collisions at 160 GeV and found to be in reasonable agreement with existing data.

- Modeling J /Psi production and absorption in a microscopic nonequilibrium approach (1999)
- Charmonium production and absorption in heavy ion collisions is studied with the Ultrarelativisitic Quantum Molecular Dynamics model. We compare the scenario of universal and time independent color-octet dissociation cross sections with one of distinct color-singlet J/psi, psi 2 and CHIc states, evolving from small, color transparent configurations to their asymptotic sizes. The measured J/psi production cross sections in pA and AB collisions at SPS energies are consistent with both purely hadronic scenarios. The predicted rapidity dependence of J/psi suppression can be used to discriminate between the two experimentally. The importance of interactions with secondary hadrons and the applicability of thermal reaction kinetics to J/psi absorption are in- vestigated. We discuss the e ect of nuclear stopping and the role of leading hadrons. The dependence of the 2/J/psi ratio on the model assumptions and the possible influence of refeeding processes is also studied.