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#### Institute

- Vacuum-polarization contribution to the hyperfine-structure splitting of hydrogenlike atoms (1994)
- A calculation of the vacuum-polarization contribution to the hyperfine splitting for hydrogenlike atoms is presented. The extended nuclear charge distribution is taken into account. For the experimentally interesting case 209Bi82+ we predict a delta-lambda- -1.6 nm shift for the transition wavelength of the ground-state hyperfine splitting.

- Periodic structure in nuclear matter (1992)
- The properties of nuclear matter are studied in the framework of quantum hadrodynamics. Assuming an ω-meson field, periodic in space, a self-consistent set of equations is derived in the mean-field approximation for the description of nucleons interacting via σ-meson and ω-meson fields. Solutions of these self-consistent equations have been found: The baryon density is constant in space, however, the baryon current density is periodic. This high density phase of nuclear matter can be produced by anisotropic external pressure, occurring, e.g., in relativistic heavy ion reactions. The self-consistent fields developing beyond the instability limit have a special screw symmetry. In the presence of such an ω field, the energy spectrum of the relativistic nucleons exhibits allowed and forbidden bands, similar to the energy spectrum of the electrons in solids.

- Formation of heavy quarks in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions (1992)
- We investigate the production of heavy quarks in continuum and bound states in nuclear collisions. Creation rates for free bb̅ and tt̅ quark pairs and for bottomonium and toponium in the ground state are computed at energies of the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), and Superconducting Super Collider. Central and peripheral heavy-ion collisions are discussed. For top-quark creation we assumed a mass range of 90≤mt≤250 GeV. The creation rate for top quarks in peripheral collisions is estimated to be by a factor 40 to 130 smaller compared with corresponding central collisions. For mt=130 GeV we calculated a creation rate of about 4760 top-quark pairs per day at the LHC (3.5 TeV/nucleon) for Pb-Pb collisions.

- Flavor distributions in the nucleons: SU(2) sea asymmetry or isospin symmetry breaking? (1993)
- The Gottfried sum-rule violation reported by the New Muon Collaboration was interpreted as an indication for a flavor asymmetry of the sea quark in the nucleon. We investigate the alternative possibility that isospin symmetry between the proton and the neutron is breaking. We examine systematically the consequences of this possibility for several processes, namely, neutrino deep inelastic scattering, the charged pion Drell-Yan process, the proton Drell-Yan process, and semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering, and conclude that a decision between the two alternative explanations is possible.

- Multiplicity distribution of electron-positron pairs created by strong external fields (1992)
- We discuss the multiplicity distribution of electron-positron pairs created in the strong electromagnetic fields of ultrarelativistic heavy-ion transits. Based on nonperturbative expressions for the N-pair creation amplitudes, the Poisson distribution is derived by neglecting interference terms. The source of unitarity violation is identified in the vacuum-to-vacuum amplitude, and a perturbative expression for the mean number of pairs is given.

- Angular Correlations of Coincident Electron-Positron Pairs Produced in Heavy-Ion Collisions with Nuclear Time Delay (1988)
- We calculate angular correlations between coincident electron-positron pairs emitted in heavy-ion collisions with nuclear time delay. Special attention is directed to a comparison of supercritical and subcritical systems, where angular correlations of pairs produced in collisions of bare U nuclei are found to alter their sign for nuclear delay times of the order of 2 × 10-21 s. This effect is shown to occur exclusively in supercritical systems, where spontaneous positron creation is active.

- Nonlinear extensions of the Dirac equation and their implications in QED (1988)
- We investigate the influence of additional nonlinear terms in the Dirac Lagrangian on strongly bound electron states in heavy and superheavy atoms. Upper bounds for the coupling constants are deduced by comparison with precision spectroscopy data in QED. We demonstrate that nonlinear interactions may cause significant modifications of electron binding energies in superheavy quasiatomic systems which would not be visible in ordinary atomic-physics measurements.

- Nuclear equation of state from the nonlinear relativistic mean field theory (1988)
- The properties of symmetric nuclear matter are investigated in the nonlinear relativistic mean field theory of nuclear matter. We consider the constraints imposed by four nuclear ground state properties on the coupling constants and on the equation of state at zero and at finite temperature. We find that the compression constant K(ρ0) as well as the temperature is irrelevant for the stiffness of the equation of state for m*(ρ0)≤0.7. The main point is that the relativistic mean field theory exhibits acausal and unphysical behavior for compressibilities below K(ρ0)=200 MeV. Every set of coupling constants with a negative quartic coupling constant c is unstable against small quantum fluctuations.

- Optimal parametrization for the relativistic mean-field model of the nucleus (1988)
- We study a relativistic model of the nucleus consisting of nucleons coupled to mesonic degrees of freedom via an effective Lagrangian whose parameters are determined by a fit to selected nuclear ground-state data. We find that the model allows a very good description of nuclear ground-state properties. Because of the relativistic nature of the model, the spin properties are uniquely fixed. We discuss variations of the parametrization and of the data which suggest that the present fit has exhausted the limits of the mean-field approximation, and discuss extensions which go beyond the mean field.

- Positron production in crossed beams of bare uranium nuclei (1988)
- Positron creation in crossed-beam collisions of high-energy, fully stripped heavy ions is investigated within the coupled-channel formalism. In comparison with fixed-target collisions of highly stripped heavy-ion projectiles positron production probabilities are enhanced by more than one order of magnitude. The increase results from the possibility to excite electrons from the negative energy continuum into all bound states. The positron spectrum is shifted towards higher energies because of the absence of electron screening. Rutherford scattering as well as nuclear collisions with time delay are investigated. We also discuss the filling of empty bound states by electrons from pair-production processes.