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- freeze out (2)
- particle spectra (2)
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- Freeze Out (1)
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- Particle Spectra (1)
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- Freeze out in hydrodynamical models (1999)
- We study the effects of strict conservation laws and the problem of negative contributions to final momentum distribution during the freeze out through 3-dimensional hypersurfaces with space-like normal. We study some suggested solutions for this problem, and demonstrate it on one example. PACS: 24.10.Nz, 25.75.-q

- Kinetic freeze out models (1999)
- Freeze out of particles across a space-time hypersurface is discussed in kinetic models. The calculation of final momentum distribution of emitted particles is described for freeze out surfaces, with spacelike normals. The resulting non-equilibrium distribution does not resemble, the previously proposed, cut Jüttner distribution, and shows non-exponential pt-spectra similar to the ones observed in experiments. PACS: 24.10.Nz, 25.75.-q

- Large p(t) enhancement from freeze out (1999)
- Freeze out of particles across three dimensional space-time hypersurface is discussed in a simple kinetic model. The final momentum distribution of emitted particles, for freeze out surfaces with space-like normal, shows a non-exponential transverse momentum spectrum. The slope parameter of the pt distribution increases with increasing pt, in agreement with recently measured SPS pion and h spectra.

- Freeze-out in hydrodynamical models in relativistic heavy ion collisions (1999)
- In continuum and fluid dynamical models, particles, which leave the system and reach the detectors, can be taken into account via freeze-out (FO) or final break-up schemes, where the frozen out particles are formed on a 3-dimensional hypersurface in space-time. Such FO descriptions are important ingredients of evaluations of two-particle correlation data, transverse-, longitudinal-, radial- and cylindrical- flow analyses, transverse momentum and transverse mass spectra and many other observables. The FO on a hypersurface is a discontinuity, where the pre FO equilibrated and interacting matter abruptly changes to non-interacting particles, showing an ideal gas type of behavior.

- Incident-energy dependence of the effective temperature in heavy-ion collisions (2003)
- We study the behaviour of the effective temperature for K+ in several energy domains. For this purpose, we apply the recently developed SPheRIO code for hydrodynamics in 3+1 dimensions, using both Landau-type compact initial conditions and spatially more spread ones. We show that initial conditions given in small volume, like Landau-type ones, are unable to reproduce the effective temperature together with other data (multiplicities and rapidity distributions). These quantities can be reproduced altogether only when using a large initial volume with an appropriate velocity distribution.