### Refine

- Vacuum-polarization contribution to the hyperfine-structure splitting of hydrogenlike atoms (1994)
- A calculation of the vacuum-polarization contribution to the hyperfine splitting for hydrogenlike atoms is presented. The extended nuclear charge distribution is taken into account. For the experimentally interesting case 209Bi82+ we predict a delta-lambda- -1.6 nm shift for the transition wavelength of the ground-state hyperfine splitting.

- Spin polarization of electrons induced by strong collisional magnetic fields (1981)
- We calculate the spin polarization of 1sσ vacancies and emitted δ electrons induced by the strong magnetic field (|Bmax|∼1016G) in collisions of very heavy ions (Z1+Z2=178). The electron excitations are determined by the solution of coupled-channel equations within the quasimolecular basis states including the vector potential. The formulation is extended to the many-electron case. Spin polarizations of the order of 5-10% for impact energies below the Coulomb barrier are predicted.

- Spectroscopy of electronic states in superheavy quasimolecules (1978)
- We show that information about quasimolecular electronic binding energies in transient atomic systems of Z=Z1+Z2 up to 184 can be obtained from three sources: (1) the impact-parameter dependence of the ionization probability; (2) the ionization probability in head-on collisions as a function of total nuclear charge Z; (3) the delta-electron spectrum in coincidence with K-vacancy formation in asymmetric collisions. Experiments are proposed and discussed.

- Shakeoff of the vacuum polarization in quasimolecular collisions of very heavy ions (1977)
- The theory of direct electron-positron pair production in the collision of heavy ions is formulated in the framework of the quasimolecular model. The pair production process acquires a collective nature for (Z1+Z2)α>1 and can be understood as the shakeoff of the strong vacuum polarization cloud formed in the quasimolecule. The total cross section is, e.g., 76 μb for Pb + Pb at Coulomb barrier energies.

- Self-energy of electrons in critical fields (1982)
- The energy shift of K electrons in heavy atoms due to the self-energy correction has been calculated. This process is treated to all orders in Zα, where Z denotes the nuclear charge. For the superheavy system Z=170, where the K-shell binding energy reaches the pair-production threshold (E1sb∼2mc2), a shift of +11.0 keV is found. This shift is almost cancelled by the vacuum polarization, leaving a negligible effect for all quantum-electrodynamical corrections of order α but all orders of Zα.

- Self-energy correction to the hyperfine structure splitting of hydrogenlike atoms (1996)
- A first testing ground for QED in the combined presence of a strong Coulomb field and a strong magnetic field is provided by the precise measurement of the hyperfine structure splitting of hydrogenlike 209Bi. We present a complete calculation of the one-loop self-energy correction to the first-order hyperfine interaction for various nuclear charges. In the low-Z regime we almost perfectly agree with the Z alpha expansion, but for medium and high Z there is a substantial deviation.

- Relativistic two-center continuum (1987)
- A method is presented to define unique continuum states for the two-center Dirac Hamiltonian. In the spherical limit these states become the familiar angular-momentum eigenstates of the radial Coulomb potential. The different states for a fixed total energy ‖E‖>m may be distinguished by considering the asymptotic spin-angular distribution of states with unique scattering phases. The first numerical solutions of the two-center Dirac equation for continuum states are presented.

- Nuclear polarization in heavy atoms and superheavy quasiatoms (1991)
- We consider the contribution of nuclear polarization to the Lamb shift of K- and L-shell electrons in heavy atoms and quasiatoms. Our formal approach is based on the concept of effective photon propagators with nuclear-polarization insertions treating effects of nuclear polarization on the same footing as usual QED radiative corrections. We explicitly derive the modification of the photon propagator for various collective nuclear excitations and calculate the corresponding effective self-energy shift perturbatively. The energy shift of the 1s1/2 state in 92238U due to virtual excitation of nuclear rotational states is shown to be a considerable correction for atomic high-precision experiments. In contrast to this, nuclear-polarization effects are of minor importance for Lamb-shift studies in 82208Pb.

- Nuclear polarization contribution to the Lamb shift in heavy atoms (1989)
- The energy shift of the 1s1/2 state in 92238U due to virtual excitation of nuclear rotational modes is shown to be a considerable correction for atomic high-precision experiments. In contrast to this, nuclear polarization effects are of minor importance for Lamb-shift studies in 82208Pb.

- Multiplicity distribution of electron-positron pairs created by strong external fields (1992)
- We discuss the multiplicity distribution of electron-positron pairs created in the strong electromagnetic fields of ultrarelativistic heavy-ion transits. Based on nonperturbative expressions for the N-pair creation amplitudes, the Poisson distribution is derived by neglecting interference terms. The source of unitarity violation is identified in the vacuum-to-vacuum amplitude, and a perturbative expression for the mean number of pairs is given.