Year of publication
- Central collisions of relativistic heavy ions (1977)
- The energy spectra of protons and light nuclei produced by the interaction of 4He and 20Ne projectiles with Al and U targets have been investigated at incident energies ranging from 0.25 to 2.1 GeV per nucleon. Single fragment inclusive spectra have been obtained at angles between 25° and 150°, in the energy range from 30 to 150 MeV/nucleon. The multiplicity of intermediate and high energy charged particles was determined in coincidence with the measured fragments. In a separate study, fragment spectra were obtained in the evaporation energy range from 12C and 20Ne bombardment of uranium. We observe structureless, exponentially decaying spectra throughout the range of studied fragment masses. There is evidence for two major classes of fragments; one with emission at intermediate temperature from a system moving slowly in the lab frame, and the other with high temperature emission from a system propagating at a velocity intermediate between target and projectile. The high energy proton spectra are fairly well reproduced by a nuclear fireball model based on simple geometrical, kinematical, and statistical assumptions. Light cluster emission is also discussed in the framework of statistical models. NUCLEAR REACTIONS U(20Ne,X), E=250 MeV/nucl.; U(20Ne,X), U(α,X) E=400 MeV/nucl.; U(20Ne,X), Al(20Ne,X), E=2.1 GeV/nucl.; measured σ(E,θ), X=p, d, t, 3He,4He. U(20Ne,X), U(α,X), E=400 MeV/nucl.; U(20Ne,X), E=2.1 GeV/nucl.; measured σ(E, θ), Li to O. U(20Ne,X), U(12C,X), E=2.1 GeV/nucl.; measured σ(E, 90°), 4He to B. Nuclear fireballs, coalescence, thermodynamics of light nuclei production.
- On transverse momentum event–by–event fluctuations in string hadronic models (1998)
- Transverse momentum event-by-event fluctuations are studied within the string-hadronic model of high energy nuclear collisions, LUCIAE. Data on non-statistical pT fluctuations in p+p interactions are reproduced. Fluctuations of similar magnitude are predicted for nucleus-nucleus collisions, in contradiction to the preliminary NA49 results. The introduction of a string clustering mechanism (Firecracker Model) leads to a further, significant increase of pT fluctuations for nucleus-nucleus collisions. Secondary hadronic interactions, as implemented in LUCIAE, cause only a small reduction of pT fluctuations.
- Bulk hadron production at AGS and SPS (2002)
- With new data available from the SPS, at 40 and 80 GeV/A, I review the systematics of bulk hadron multiplicities, with prime focus on strangeness production. The classical concept of strangeness enhancement in central AA collisions is reviewed, in view of the statistical hadronization model which suggests to understand strangeness enhancement to arise chiefly in the transition from the canonical to the grand canonical version of that model. I. e. enhancement results from the fading away of canonical suppression. The model also captures the striking strangeness maximum observed in the vicinity of sqrt s approx 8 GeV. A puzzle remains in the understanding of apparent grand canonical order at the lower SPS, and at AGS energies.
- Hadron production in relativistic nuclear collisions (2003)
- Relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions create a "fireball" of strongly interacting matter at high energy density. At very high energy this is suggested to be partonic matter, but at lower energy it should consist of yet unknown hadronic, perhaps coherent degrees of freedom. The freeze-out of this high density state to a hadron gas can tell us about properties of fireball matter. Date (v1): Thu, 19 Dec 2002 12:52:34 GMT (146kb) Date (revised v2): Thu, 16 Jan 2003 15:11:47 GMT (146kb) Date (revised v3): Wed, 14 May 2003 12:49:35 GMT (146kb)
- The parton to hadron phase transition observed in Pb+Pb collisions at 158 GeV per nucleon (1999)
- Hadronic yields and yield ratios observed in Pb+Pb collisions at the SPS energy of 158 GeV per nucleon are known to resemble a thermal equilibrium population at T=180 +/- 10 MeV, also observed in elementary e+ + e- to hadron data at LEP. We argue that this is the universal consequence of the QCD parton to hadron phase transition populating the maximum entropy state. This state is shown to survive the hadronic rescattering and expansion phase, freezing in right after hadronization due to the very rapid longitudinal and transverse expansion that is inferred from Bose-Einstein pion correlation analysis of central Pb+Pb collisions.
- Quark Matter 99 summary: hadronic signals (1999)
- I review the new data presented at QM99. The main emphasis is placed on the CERN SPS hadron production systematics concluding that the boundary between a partonic and a hadronic phase has now been located at $T=180 \pm10\:MeV$ and $\epsilon \approx 1 \:GeV$ per $fm^3$.
- The parton-hadron phase transition in central nuclear collisions at the CERN SPS (1999)
- A selection of recent data referring to Pb+Pb collisions at the SPS CERN energy of 158 GeV per nucleon is presented which might describe the state of highly excited strongly interacting matter both above and below the deconfinement to hadronization (phase) transition predicted by lattice QCD. A tentative picture emerges in which a partonic state is indeed formed in central Pb+Pb collisions which hadronizes at about T = 185 MeV, and expands its volume more than tenfold, cooling to about 120 MeV before hadronic collisions cease. We suggest further that all SPS collisions, from central S+S onward, reach that partonic phase, the maximum energy density increasing with more massive collision systems.
- Study on chemical equilibrium in nucleus-nucleus collisions at relativistic energies (2004)
- We present a detailed study of chemical freeze-out in nucleus-nucleus collisions at beam energies of 11.6, 30, 40, 80 and 158A GeV. By analyzing hadronic multiplicities within the statistical hadronization approach, we have studied the chemical equilibration of the system as a function of center of mass energy and of the parameters of the source. Additionally, we have tested and compared different versions of the statistical model, with special emphasis on possible explanations of the observed strangeness hadronic phase space under-saturation.