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- On functional module detection in metabolic networks (2013)
- Functional modules of metabolic networks are essential for understanding the metabolism of an organism as a whole. With the vast amount of experimental data and the construction of complex and large-scale, often genome-wide, models, the computer-aided identification of functional modules becomes more and more important. Since steady states play a key role in biology, many methods have been developed in that context, for example, elementary flux modes, extreme pathways, transition invariants and place invariants. Metabolic networks can be studied also from the point of view of graph theory, and algorithms for graph decomposition have been applied for the identification of functional modules. A prominent and currently intensively discussed field of methods in graph theory addresses the Q-modularity. In this paper, we recall known concepts of module detection based on the steady-state assumption, focusing on transition-invariants (elementary modes) and their computation as minimal solutions of systems of Diophantine equations. We present the Fourier-Motzkin algorithm in detail. Afterwards, we introduce the Q-modularity as an example for a useful non-steady-state method and its application to metabolic networks. To illustrate and discuss the concepts of invariants and Q-modularity, we apply a part of the central carbon metabolism in potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum) as running example. The intention of the paper is to give a compact presentation of known steady-state concepts from a graph-theoretical viewpoint in the context of network decomposition and reduction and to introduce the application of Q-modularity to metabolic Petri net models.

- The error-bounded descriptional complexity of approximation networks (1993)
- It is well known that artificial neural nets can be used as approximators of any continuous functions to any desired degree and therefore be used e.g. in high - speed, real-time process control. Nevertheless, for a given application and a given network architecture the non-trivial task remains to determine the necessary number of neurons and the necessary accuracy (number of bits) per weight for a satisfactory operation which are critical issues in VLSI and computer implementations of nontrivial tasks. In this paper the accuracy of the weights and the number of neurons are seen as general system parameters which determine the maximal approximation error by the absolute amount and the relative distribution of information contained in the network. We define as the error-bounded network descriptional complexity the minimal number of bits for a class of approximation networks which show a certain approximation error and achieve the conditions for this goal by the new principle of optimal information distribution. For two examples, a simple linear approximation of a non-linear, quadratic function and a non-linear approximation of the inverse kinematic transformation used in robot manipulator control, the principle of optimal information distribution gives the the optimal number of neurons and the resolutions of the variables, i.e. the minimal amount of storage for the neural net. Keywords: Kolmogorov complexity, e-Entropy, rate-distortion theory, approximation networks, information distribution, weight resolutions, Kohonen mapping, robot control.

- Self-organized learning in multi-layer networks (1995)
- We present a framework for the self-organized formation of high level learning by a statistical preprocessing of features. The paper focuses first on the formation of the features in the context of layers of feature processing units as a kind of resource-restricted associative multiresolution learning We clame that such an architecture must reach maturity by basic statistical proportions, optimizing the information processing capabilities of each layer. The final symbolic output is learned by pure association of features of different levels and kind of sensorial input. Finally, we also show that common error-correction learning for motor skills can be accomplished also by non-specific associative learning. Keywords: feedforward network layers, maximal information gain, restricted Hebbian learning, cellular neural nets, evolutionary associative learning

- A spectral multi-resolution image encoding network (1995)
- After a short introduction into traditional image transform coding, multirate systems and multiscale signal coding the paper focuses on the subject of image encoding by a neural network. Taking also noise into account a network model is proposed which not only learns the optimal localized basis functions for the transform but also learns to implement a whitening filter by multi-resolution encoding. A simulation showing the multi-resolution capabilitys concludes the contribution.

- Sensor encoding using lateral inhibited, self-organized cellular neural networks (1996)
- The paper focuses on the division of the sensor field into subsets of sensor events and proposes the linear transformation with the smallest achievable error for reproduction: the transform coding approach using the principal component analysis (PCA). For the implementation of the PCA, this paper introduces a new symmetrical, lateral inhibited neural network model, proposes an objective function for it and deduces the corresponding learning rules. The necessary conditions for the learning rate and the inhibition parameter for balancing the crosscorrelations vs. the autocorrelations are computed. The simulation reveals that an increasing inhibition can speed up the convergence process in the beginning slightly. In the remaining paper, the application of the network in picture encoding is discussed. Here, the use of non-completely connected networks for the self-organized formation of templates in cellular neural networks is shown. It turns out that the self-organizing Kohonen map is just the non-linear, first order approximation of a general self-organizing scheme. Hereby, the classical transform picture coding is changed to a parallel, local model of linear transformation by locally changing sets of self-organized eigenvector projections with overlapping input receptive fields. This approach favors an effective, cheap implementation of sensor encoding directly on the sensor chip. Keywords: Transform coding, Principal component analysis, Lateral inhibited network, Cellular neural network, Kohonen map, Self-organized eigenvector jets.

- Using RBF nets in rubber industry process control (1996)
- This paper describes the use of a radial basis function (RBF) neural network. It approximates the process parameters for the extrusion of a rubber profile used in tyre production. After introducing the problem, we describe the RBF net algorithm and the modeling of the industrial problem. The algorithm shows good results even using only a few training samples. It turns out that the „curse of dimensions“ plays an important role in the model. The paper concludes by a discussion of possible systematic error influences and improvements.

- Implementing the SCAN language by neural networks (1996)
- The real-time encryption of pictures is an important subject for many applications, e.g. television broadcast stations, network security, etc. The paper shows how the previously introduced SCAN encryption method can be easily implemented using binary neural network autoassociative memory.

- Individuelle Prognose bei kritisch kranken Patienten mit septischem Schock durch ein neuronales Netz? (1998)
- Im Zeitraum 1. 11. 1993 bis 30. 3. 1997 wurden 1149 allgemeinchirurgische Intensivpatienten prospektiv erfaßt, von denen 114 die Kriterien des septischen Schocks erfüllten. Die Letalität der Patienten mit einem septischen Schock betrug 47,3%. Nach Training eines neuronalen Netzes mit 91 (von insgesamt n = 114) Patienten ergab die Testung bei den verbleibenden 23 Patienten bei der Berücksichtigung von Parameterveränderungen vom 1. auf den 2. Tag des septischen Schocks folgendes Ergebnis: Alle 10 verstorbenen Patienten wurden korrekt als nicht überlebend vorhergesagt, von den 13 Überlebenden wurden 12 korrekt als überlebend vorhergesagt (Sensitivität 100%; Spezifität 92,3%). Schlüsselwörter: Neuronales Netzwerk , Prognose , Intensivpatient.

- Noise suppressing sensor encoding and neural signal orthonormalization (1998)
- In this paper we regard first the situation where parallel channels are disturbed by noise. With the goal of maximal information conservation we deduce the conditions for a transform which "immunizes" the channels against noise influence before the signals are used in later operations. It shows up that the signals have to be decorrelated and normalized by the filter which corresponds for the case of one channel to the classical result of Shannon. Additional simulations for image encoding and decoding show that this constitutes an efficient approach for noise suppression. Furthermore, by a corresponding objective function we deduce the stochastic and deterministic learning rules for a neural network that implements the data orthonormalization. In comparison with other already existing normalization networks our network shows approximately the same in the stochastic case but, by its generic deduction ensures the convergence and enables the use as independent building block in other contexts, e.g. whitening for independent component analysis. Keywords: information conservation, whitening filter, data orthonormalization network, image encoding, noise suppression.

- Adaptive process control in rubber industry (1998)
- This paper describes the problems and an adaptive solution for process control in rubber industry. We show that the human and economical benefits of an adaptive solution for the approximation of process parameters are very attractive. The modeling of the industrial problem is done by the means of artificial neural networks. For the example of the extrusion of a rubber profile in tire production our method shows good results even using only a few training samples.